Infection of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi: effect of host age and blood-feeding status

L.L. Mnyone, M.J. Kirby, M.W. Mpingwa, D.W. Lwetoijera, B.G.J. Knols, W. Takken, C.J.M. Koenraadt, T.L. Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


Physiological characteristics of insects can influence their susceptibility to fungal infection of which age and nutritional status are among the most important. An understanding of host–pathogen interaction with respect to these physiological characteristics of the host is essential if we are to develop fungal formulations capable of reducing malaria transmission under field conditions. Here, two independent bioassays were conducted to study the effect of age and blood-feeding status on fungal infection and survival of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles. Mosquitoes were exposed to 2¿×¿1010 conidia m-2 of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 and of Beauveria bassiana I93-825, respectively, and their survival was monitored daily. Three age groups of mosquitoes were exposed, 2–4, 5–8, and 9–12 days since emergence. Five groups of different feeding status were exposed: non-blood-fed, 3, 12, 36, and 72 h post-blood feeding. Fungal infection reduced the survival of mosquitoes regardless of their age and blood-feeding status. Although older mosquitoes died relatively earlier than younger ones, age did not tend to affect mosquito susceptibility to fungal infection. Non-blood-fed mosquitoes were more susceptible to fungus infection compared to all categories of blood-fed mosquitoes, except for those exposed to B. bassiana 72 h post-blood feeding. In conclusion, formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana can equally affect mosquitoes of different age classes, with them being relatively more susceptible to fungus infection when non-blood-fed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-322
JournalParasitology Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • african malaria mosquitos
  • aedes-aegypti diptera
  • metarhizium-anisopliae
  • cuticular hydrocarbons
  • insecticide resistance
  • beauveria-bassiana
  • flight performance
  • nomuraea-rileyi
  • sephadex beads
  • culicidae


Dive into the research topics of 'Infection of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with entomopathogenic fungi: effect of host age and blood-feeding status'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this