Induction of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ¿ (PPAR¿)-Mediated Gene Expression by Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Extracts

L. Gijsbers, H.D.L.M. van Eekelen, L.H.J. de Haan, J.M. Swier, N.L. Heijink, S.K. Kloet, A.G. Bovy, J. Keijer, I.M.C.M. Rietjens, J.M.M.J.G. Aarts

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27 Citations (Scopus)


Since beneficial effects related to tomato consumption partially overlap with those related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿ (PPAR¿) activation, our aim was to test extracts of tomato fruits and tomato components, including polyphenols and isoprenoids, for their capacity to activate PPAR¿ using the PPAR¿2 CALUX reporter cell line. Thirty tomato compounds were tested; seven carotenoids and three polyphenols induced PPAR¿2-mediated luciferase expression. Two extracts of tomato, one containing deglycosylated phenolic compounds and one containing isoprenoids, also induced PPAR¿2-mediated expression at physiologically relevant concentrations. Furthermore, enzymatically hydrolyzed extracts of seven tomato varieties all induced PPAR¿-mediated expression, with a 1.6-fold difference between the least potent and the most potent variety. The two most potent varieties had high flavonoid content, while the two least potent varieties had low flavonoid content. These data indicate that extracts of tomato are able to induce PPAR¿-mediated gene expression in vitro and that some tomato varieties are more potent than others.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3419-3427
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • improves insulin sensitivity
  • ppar-gamma
  • plasma-concentrations
  • hypertensive patients
  • blood-pressure
  • food-products
  • beta-carotene
  • cancer cells
  • fruit
  • lycopene


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