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OBJECTIVES: Several studies on faecal carriage of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli have been performed in cattle, but little is known about faecal carriage in veal calves. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of ESBL/AmpC genes in E. coli isolated from faecal samples of veal calves from 1997 to 2010. METHODS: Pooled faecal samples were inoculated using selective enrichment broth and subsequently selective MacConkey agar. All isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime were screened by PCR and sequencing analysis for the presence of ESBL/AmpC genes. RESULTS: The prevalence of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime showed a discontinuous increasing trend, ranging from 4% in 1998 and 1999 to 39% in 2010. Promoter mutations of the chromosomal ampC gene were present in all years. In 2000, ESBL genes blaCTX-M-1, blaTEM-52 and blaTEM-20 were first observed. Before 2005 the majority of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime harboured ampC promoter mutations. From 2005 onwards the majority harboured blaCTX-M genes, of which blaCTX-M-1 was the most abundant, followed by blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15. The diversity of blaCTX-M genes gradually increased from one variant in 2000 to six variants in 2010. The prevalence of blaTEM-52 was relatively low, but it was detected from 2000 onwards. blaCMY and blaSHV were found sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and molecular diversity of genes encoding cefotaxime resistance in E. coli isolated from veal calves over a 14 year period showed an increasing trend. From 2005 onwards, blaCTX-M genes were most abundant, especially blaCTX-M-1.
- food-producing animals
- companion animals
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1/01/13 → 31/12/13