Increasing green leafy vegetable consumption through street food dishes in Lagos, Nigeria

Ireen Raaijmakers, Youri Dijkxhoorn, Harriette Snoek*, Kikelomo Amoreoluwa, Adedola Adeboye, Olufolajimi Talabi, Christine Plaisir, Augustine Ehimen Okoruwa, Oluwole Toye, Coen van Wagenberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose: Despite its health benefits, vegetable consumption is low in urban Nigeria. Interventions have been successful in increasing urban Nigerians' vegetable intake in the home environment, but interventions doing so for popular out-of-home consumption are lacking. This study aimed to design, implement and assess an intervention to increase the vegetable intake of urban Nigerians through street foods. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental design was applied in Lagos, Nigeria. During the intervention, 12 trained street food vendors (SFVs) actively promoted the health benefits of vegetables to their customers (using marketing statements and posters) and provided the option to buy an additional green leafy vegetables (GLVs) side dish to their meal. Purchases were observed, and a survey was conducted before and during the intervention to measure perceived meal quality and satisfaction. Six to eight weeks after the intervention, a mystery shopper visited the vendor to assess if they were still selling additional GLVs. Findings: Almost half (46%) of the 1,506 observed customers bought additional GLVs during the intervention. Both at baseline (N = 452) and during intervention (N = 564), meal satisfaction was high. Users were on average more educated and older than non-users. Most vendors did not perceive the sale of additional GLVs as additional work. Six to eight weeks after the intervention, nine vendors (75%) were still selling additional GLVs. Originality/value: This study showed that SFVs informing consumers on the potential health benefits of vegetables and offering these vegetables in street food dishes at a commercially viable price is an interesting option to increase vegetable intake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)516-537
Number of pages22
JournalBritish Food Journal
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Food system
  • Impact assessment
  • Intervention
  • Nigeria
  • Street food
  • Vegetables


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