Fish consumption is associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. A possible mechanism by which fish consumption could decrease colorectal cancer risk is by reducing inflammation. However, thus far, intervention studies investigating both systemic and local gut inflammation markers are lacking. Our objective in this study was to investigate the effects of fatty and lean fish consumption on inflammation markers in serum, feces, and gut. In an intervention study, participants were randomly allocated to receive dietary advice (DA) plus either 300 g of fatty fish (salmon) or 300 g of lean fish (cod) per week for 6 mo, or only DA. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were measured pre- and postintervention (n = 161). In a subgroup (n = 52), we explored the effects of the fish intervention on fecal calprotectin and a wide range of cytokines and chemokines in fecal water and in colonic biopsies. Serum CRP concentrations were lower in the salmon (-0.5 mg/L; 95% CI -0.9, -0.2) and cod (-0.4 mg/L; 95% CI -0.7, 0.0) groups compared with the DA group. None of the inflammation markers in fecal water and colonic biopsies differed between the DA group and the groups that consumed extra fish. In conclusion, increasing salmon or cod consumption for 6 mo resulted in lower concentrations of the systemic inflammation marker CRP. However, exploratory analysis of local markers of inflammation in the colon or feces did not reveal an effect of fish consumption.
- colorectal-cancer risk
- multiplex immunoassay
- oxidative stress
Pot, G. K., Geelen, A., Majsak-Newman, G., Harvey, L. J., Nagengast, F. M., Witteman, B. J. M., ... Kampman, E. (2010). Increased consumption of fatty and lean fish reduces serum c-reactive protein concentrations but not inflammation markers in feces and in colonic biopsies. The Journal of Nutrition, 140(2), 371-376. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.113472