Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by disinfectants and bacteriophages in suspension and stainless steel carrier tests

N. Chaitiemwong, W.C. Hazeleger, R.R. Beumer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To simulate food contact surfaces with pits or cracks, stainless steel plates with grooves (depths between 0.2 and 5 mm) were constructed. These plates were artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in clean conditions, with organic soiling, or after 14 days of biofilm formation after which inactivation of the pathogen by Suma Tab D4 (sodium dichloroisocyanurate, 240 and 300 mg/liter), Suma Bac D10 (quaternary ammonium compound, 740 mg/liter), and bacteriophage suspension (Listex P100) was determined. Both chemical disinfectants performed well in suspension tests and in clean carrier tests according to the European standard with a reduction of more than 5 and 4 log units, respectively, of Listeria cells after 5 min of contact time. However, for the plates with grooves, the reduction could not meet the standard requirement, although a higher reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed in the shallow grooves compared with the deeper grooves. Furthermore, presence of food residues and biofilm reduced the effect of the disinfectants especially in the deep grooves, which was dependent on type of food substrate. Bacteriophages showed the best antimicrobial effect compared with the chemical disinfectants (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and quaternary ammonium compound) in most cases in the shallow grooves, but not in the deep grooves. The chlorine based disinfectants were usually less effective than quaternary ammonium compound. The results clearly demonstrate that surfaces with grooves influenced the antimicrobial effect of the chemical disinfectants and bacteriophages because the pathogen is protected in the deep grooves. The use of bacteriophages to inactivate pathogens on surfaces could be helpful in limited cases; however, use of large quantities in practice may be costly and phage-resistant strains may develop.
LanguageEnglish
Pages2012-2020
JournalJournal of Food Protection
Volume77
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Disinfectants
Stainless Steel
disinfectants
Listeria monocytogenes
stainless steel
bacteriophages
Bacteriophages
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Suspensions
inactivation
quaternary ammonium compounds
anti-infective properties
Biofilms
Food
biofilm
testing
pathogens
food contact surfaces
Listeria
Chlorine

Keywords

  • quaternary ammonium compound
  • food-contact surfaces
  • salmonella-typhimurium
  • processing equipment
  • cross-contamination
  • planktonic cells
  • biofilms
  • bacteria
  • efficacy
  • infection

Cite this

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title = "Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by disinfectants and bacteriophages in suspension and stainless steel carrier tests",
abstract = "To simulate food contact surfaces with pits or cracks, stainless steel plates with grooves (depths between 0.2 and 5 mm) were constructed. These plates were artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in clean conditions, with organic soiling, or after 14 days of biofilm formation after which inactivation of the pathogen by Suma Tab D4 (sodium dichloroisocyanurate, 240 and 300 mg/liter), Suma Bac D10 (quaternary ammonium compound, 740 mg/liter), and bacteriophage suspension (Listex P100) was determined. Both chemical disinfectants performed well in suspension tests and in clean carrier tests according to the European standard with a reduction of more than 5 and 4 log units, respectively, of Listeria cells after 5 min of contact time. However, for the plates with grooves, the reduction could not meet the standard requirement, although a higher reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed in the shallow grooves compared with the deeper grooves. Furthermore, presence of food residues and biofilm reduced the effect of the disinfectants especially in the deep grooves, which was dependent on type of food substrate. Bacteriophages showed the best antimicrobial effect compared with the chemical disinfectants (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and quaternary ammonium compound) in most cases in the shallow grooves, but not in the deep grooves. The chlorine based disinfectants were usually less effective than quaternary ammonium compound. The results clearly demonstrate that surfaces with grooves influenced the antimicrobial effect of the chemical disinfectants and bacteriophages because the pathogen is protected in the deep grooves. The use of bacteriophages to inactivate pathogens on surfaces could be helpful in limited cases; however, use of large quantities in practice may be costly and phage-resistant strains may develop.",
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author = "N. Chaitiemwong and W.C. Hazeleger and R.R. Beumer",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-151",
language = "English",
volume = "77",
pages = "2012--2020",
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Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by disinfectants and bacteriophages in suspension and stainless steel carrier tests. / Chaitiemwong, N.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Beumer, R.R.

In: Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 77, No. 12, 2014, p. 2012-2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by disinfectants and bacteriophages in suspension and stainless steel carrier tests

AU - Chaitiemwong, N.

AU - Hazeleger, W.C.

AU - Beumer, R.R.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - To simulate food contact surfaces with pits or cracks, stainless steel plates with grooves (depths between 0.2 and 5 mm) were constructed. These plates were artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in clean conditions, with organic soiling, or after 14 days of biofilm formation after which inactivation of the pathogen by Suma Tab D4 (sodium dichloroisocyanurate, 240 and 300 mg/liter), Suma Bac D10 (quaternary ammonium compound, 740 mg/liter), and bacteriophage suspension (Listex P100) was determined. Both chemical disinfectants performed well in suspension tests and in clean carrier tests according to the European standard with a reduction of more than 5 and 4 log units, respectively, of Listeria cells after 5 min of contact time. However, for the plates with grooves, the reduction could not meet the standard requirement, although a higher reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed in the shallow grooves compared with the deeper grooves. Furthermore, presence of food residues and biofilm reduced the effect of the disinfectants especially in the deep grooves, which was dependent on type of food substrate. Bacteriophages showed the best antimicrobial effect compared with the chemical disinfectants (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and quaternary ammonium compound) in most cases in the shallow grooves, but not in the deep grooves. The chlorine based disinfectants were usually less effective than quaternary ammonium compound. The results clearly demonstrate that surfaces with grooves influenced the antimicrobial effect of the chemical disinfectants and bacteriophages because the pathogen is protected in the deep grooves. The use of bacteriophages to inactivate pathogens on surfaces could be helpful in limited cases; however, use of large quantities in practice may be costly and phage-resistant strains may develop.

AB - To simulate food contact surfaces with pits or cracks, stainless steel plates with grooves (depths between 0.2 and 5 mm) were constructed. These plates were artificially contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in clean conditions, with organic soiling, or after 14 days of biofilm formation after which inactivation of the pathogen by Suma Tab D4 (sodium dichloroisocyanurate, 240 and 300 mg/liter), Suma Bac D10 (quaternary ammonium compound, 740 mg/liter), and bacteriophage suspension (Listex P100) was determined. Both chemical disinfectants performed well in suspension tests and in clean carrier tests according to the European standard with a reduction of more than 5 and 4 log units, respectively, of Listeria cells after 5 min of contact time. However, for the plates with grooves, the reduction could not meet the standard requirement, although a higher reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed in the shallow grooves compared with the deeper grooves. Furthermore, presence of food residues and biofilm reduced the effect of the disinfectants especially in the deep grooves, which was dependent on type of food substrate. Bacteriophages showed the best antimicrobial effect compared with the chemical disinfectants (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and quaternary ammonium compound) in most cases in the shallow grooves, but not in the deep grooves. The chlorine based disinfectants were usually less effective than quaternary ammonium compound. The results clearly demonstrate that surfaces with grooves influenced the antimicrobial effect of the chemical disinfectants and bacteriophages because the pathogen is protected in the deep grooves. The use of bacteriophages to inactivate pathogens on surfaces could be helpful in limited cases; however, use of large quantities in practice may be costly and phage-resistant strains may develop.

KW - quaternary ammonium compound

KW - food-contact surfaces

KW - salmonella-typhimurium

KW - processing equipment

KW - cross-contamination

KW - planktonic cells

KW - biofilms

KW - bacteria

KW - efficacy

KW - infection

U2 - 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-151

DO - 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-151

M3 - Article

VL - 77

SP - 2012

EP - 2020

JO - Journal of Food Protection

T2 - Journal of Food Protection

JF - Journal of Food Protection

SN - 0362-028X

IS - 12

ER -