In vivo kinetics of cytokine expression during peritonitits in carp: Evidence for innate an alternative macrophage polarization

M.K. Chadzinska, K.M. Leon, B. Plytycz, B.M.L. Verburg-van Kemenade

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Despite the discovery of many cytokine genes in fish, knowledge on their functional homology is limited. To enlighten the biological function of inflammation-related mediators, we studied their kinetics of gene expression during peritonitis in carp. Zymosan-induced intraperitoneal influx of phagocytes reached a maximum at 24 h. In peritoneal leukocytes (PTL) up-regulation of IL-1ß, TNF-¿, CXCa, and chemokine receptor CXCR1 preceded this peak. Delayed up-regulation of these genes in the head kidney (HK) indicates emigration of antigen-presenting cells from peritoneum into HK and/or systemic spreading of inflammation. In turn, early increase in expression of anti-inflammatory genes in HK (6 h) precede their up-regulation in the focus of inflammation. In PTL peaks of IL-10 and arginase 2 expression were recorded at 96 and 168 h, respectively. These results give evidence that carp macrophages in vivo differentiate into a continuum of different activation states with innate and alternative activation representing the extremes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-518
Number of pages10
JournalDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2008



  • trout oncorhynchus-mykiss
  • tumor-necrosis-factor
  • rainbow-trout
  • common carp
  • functional-characterization
  • differential expression
  • inflammatory responses
  • carassius-auratus
  • molecular-cloning
  • atlantic salmon

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