In Vivo Aroma Release and Dynamic Sensory Perception of Composite Foods

Arianne Van Eck, Michele Pedrotti, Rutger Brouwer, Arpavee Supapong, Vincenzo Fogliano, Elke Scholten, Franco Biasioli, Markus Stieger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Condiments such as spreads, dressings, or sauces are usually consumed together with carrier foods such as breads or vegetables. Dynamic interactions between condiments and carriers occur during consumption, which can influence aroma release and perception. This study investigated in vivo aroma release (PTR-MS) and dynamic sensory perception (time-intensity) of mayonnaises spiked with lemon aroma (limonene, citral). Mayonnaises were assessed without and with carrier foods (bread, potato). When different mayonnaises were consumed and assessed alone, aroma release and intensity perception were positively correlated. Interestingly, when mayonnaises were combined with carriers, aroma release and perception were no longer positively correlated. Addition of carriers increased release of limonene and citral into the nasal cavity during consumption but decreased perceived aroma intensity of condiments. The increase in aroma release induced by the carriers can be explained by differences in oral processing behaviors and by the increased surface area of mayonnaise-carrier combinations. Carrier addition is likely to modulate aroma perception of composite foods by cross-modal texture-aroma interactions. This work demonstrates that not only physicochemical characteristics of foods but also cross-modal interactions play a role in influencing flavor perception of composite foods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10260–10271
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - 26 Aug 2021


  • aroma perception
  • aroma release
  • food flavor
  • food texture
  • PTR-MS
  • time-intensity


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