The combined effect of gluten glycation and proteolysis on the release of compounds exhibiting in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant and antibacterial activities was investigated. Model systems consisting of wheat gluten and glucose were heated at 120 °C for 45 min, 150 °C for 30 min and 220 °C for 30 min to produce various Maillard reaction products mimicking reactions occurring in bread crusts. Progress of the Maillard reaction was estimated through indirect measurement of Amadori compounds as 2-furoylmethyl-amino acids. Glycation was followed by digestion with Pronase E and ultrafiltration. The anti-hypertensive activity was measured as the ability to inhibit the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme involved in hypertension regulation. The Oxygen Radical Absorbance assay was used to measure the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of the products and their effect on microbial growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphlococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was also studied. Advanced products of the reaction enhanced the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of gluten hydrolysates and decreased the overall ACE inhibitory activity. Ultrafiltration provided a useful method for separating compounds (< 3000 Da) with ACE inhibitory activity and advanced Maillard reaction products (>3000 Da) which scavenged peroxyl radicals and inhibited the microbial growth.
- Glycated gluten hydrolysates, Antioxidant activity, Angiotensin I converting Enzyme inhibition, Antibacterial activity