In Vitro Methodologies to Study the Role of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in Neurodegeneration

Marialena Chrysanthou*, Ignacio Miro Estruch, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, Harry J. Wichers, Tamara Hoppenbrouwers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can be present in food or be endogenously produced in biological systems. Their formation has been associated with chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The implication of AGEs in neurodegeneration is related to their ability to bind to AGE-specific receptors and the ability of their precursors to induce the so-called “dicarbonyl stress”, resulting in cross-linking and protein damage. However, the mode of action underlying their role in neurodegeneration remains unclear. While some research has been carried out in observational clinical studies, further in vitro studies may help elucidate these underlying modes of action. This review presents and discusses in vitro methodologies used in research on the potential role of AGEs in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The overview reveals the main concepts linking AGEs to neurodegeneration, the current findings, and the available and advisable in vitro models to study their role. Moreover, the major questions regarding the role of AGEs in neurodegenerative diseases and the challenges and discrepancies in the research field are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number363
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2022


  • Advanced glycation end products
  • AGEs
  • Blood–brain barrier
  • In vitro models
  • Inflammation
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Neuro–immune axis


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