Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) provides a rich dietary source of bio-active compounds derived from phenylpropanoid metabolism, notably caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and flavonoids. Micropropagation techniques have been established for this species, but in vitro cultures have not yet been extended to generate an efficient system for the induction of callus tissue. In this study, we compared more than 100 combinations of media supplements (e.g., phytohormones, absorbers of polyphenols, and inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase), along with various light regimes, and three different genotypes of globe artichoke to define the optimal conditions for callus induction from leaf explants. This led to the elaboration of an in vitro culture protocol which resulted in a high frequency of callus induction after just 1 week in culture. The procedure used leaf explants from virus-free, meristem culture-derived plantlets. Quantitative HPLC analysis revealed that, as in globe artichoke leaves, the predominant phenolic esters present in callus were mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acids (diCQA). The concentration of diCQA was three- to five-fold higher in calli than in leaves. The exposure of calli to UV-C light further enhanced the levels of CQAs. In vitro callus culture combined with UV-C irradiation may thus represent a viable production system for diCQA that is suitable for the synthesis of pharmacologically-active compounds.
|Journal||Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|
- dicaffeoylquinic acids
- somatic embryogenesis
- shoot apices
- explant type