Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

C.J.J.M. Raemakers, C.M. Schavemaker, E. Jacobsen, R.G.F. Visser

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32 Citations (Scopus)


In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The production of embryos in liquid medium was distinctly higher, faster and more synchronized than on solid medium. Lower densities and fragmentation of starting embryos improved the production significantly. The highest production found was 32.1 embryos per initial embryo. In all treatments the explants initiated multiple embryos. The production of single embryos was achieved by pressing starting embryos through a fine meshed sieve, indicating that embryos can be produced from a piece of tissue with a restricted number of cells. The shoot conversion rate of embryos from liquid medium was comparable with that of embryos from solid medium.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)226-229
JournalPlant Cell Reports
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1993


  • direct somatic embryogenesis
  • liquid culture
  • primary and higher cycles
  • shoot development


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