We expect an increase in the demand for animal products in the future because of global human population growth (especially in developing countries), growing incomes and increasing urbanisation. The demand for animal products is expected to double by 2050 (Rae, 1998, FAO, 2009), which will create challenges to ensure that milk is produced in an environmentally efficient and sustainable manner. The livestock sector already competes increasingly for scarce resources, such as land, water and fossil energy. Reduced fossil energy use is one way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming (Smith et al., 2008). Furthermore, there is increasing pressure on the dairy industry because of exposure to a globalising market in which the developments in the farm-gate price of milk are insufficient to keep pace with the increasing costs of production associated with rising energy costs (Oenema et al., 2011). Hence, energy reduction strategies are worthy of further investigation as they may contribute to reductions in environmental impacts and dairy farm operating costs. To improve the water use of an agricultural sector, insight into freshwater consumption and associated environmental impacts of individual farms is required. There is increasing Improved energy and water management to minimize the evironmental impact of dairy farming.
|Title of host publication||Achieving sustainable production of milk|
|Subtitle of host publication||Volume 2: Safety, quality and sustainability|
|Editors||Nico van Belzen|
|Publisher||Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited|
|Number of pages||16|
|Publication status||Published - 6 Jun 2017|