Since the early 1990s, nature conservation organizations in Eastern and Southern Africa have increasingly attempted to integrate their objectives with those of international development organizations, the land-use objectives of local communities and the commercial objectives of tourism businesses, leading to diverse institutional arrangements for the protection of nature and wildlife outside state-protected areas. The African Wildlife Foundation, an international nature conservation organization, has contributed to this trend of market-based institutional arrangements by developing the tourism-conservation enterprise (TCE) model. However, the implementation of TCEs highly depends on the context in which they are established. In this chapter we analyze and compare the implementation of three TCEs in Kenya. Based on a content analysis of data from individual semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews, site visits, as well as document and literature review, this chapter demonstrates the commonalities and differences in the institutional arrangements and the performance of the three lodges at the local level. It also identifies a range of longer term governance challenges, such as the need to address local political struggles, the relations between partners, and transparency and accountability in the arrangement.
|Title of host publication||Institutional Arrangements for Tourism, Conservation and Development in Eastern and Southern Africa: A Dynamic Perspective|
|Editors||R Duim, van der, M. Lamers, J. Wijk, van|
|Place of Publication||Dordrecht|
|Number of pages||265|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
Lamers, M. A. J., van der Duim, V. R., Nthiga, R. W., van Wijk, J. J., & Waterreus, S. (2015). Implementing Tourism-Conservation Enterprises: A Comparison of Three Lodges in Kenya. In R. Duim, van der, M. Lamers, & J. Wijk, van (Eds.), Institutional Arrangements for Tourism, Conservation and Development in Eastern and Southern Africa: A Dynamic Perspective (pp. 219-238). Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9529-6_12