Vocational Education and Training (VET) Institutions face serious challenges, like the implementation of competence-based education and upcoming teacher shortages, which urge them to implement Human Resources Management policy and practices (HRM). The implementation of HRM, however, often stagnates. This paper describes a qualitative study – in which 30 policy-makers and executives (members of the board, of the HRM department and line management) from five Dutch VET institutions participated – which was aimed at gaining more insight into the implementation gap of HRM. We identified several impeding and fostering factors, related to the content of the policy, the context in which it had to be implemented and the implementation process itself. Examples of impeding factors were the fact that teachers often did not see the usefulness of HRM practices and managers’ incompetence in fulfilling their HRM role. Examples of fostering factors were the linkage between HRM policy and educational policy and a clear communication about the goals and features of the policy.