Phospholipid gum mesostructures formed in crude soybean oil after water degumming (WD) and enzymatic degumming (ED) were studied at a range of phospholipid and water concentrations. For ED, phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and a mixture of phospholipases Purifine 3G (3G) were used. Both WD and ED resulted in lamellar liquid-crystalline phases, however, of different topology. The dependence of the bilayer spacings (as observed by SANS and SAXS) on the ratio between amount of water and amphiphilic lipids differed for WD and PLA2 ED vs PLC and 3G ED. This difference was also observed for dynamics at molecular scale as observed by time-domain (TD) NMR and attributed to partial incorporation of diglycerides and free fatty acids into gum bilayers after PLC and 3G ED. Feasibility of using TD-NMR relaxometry for quantification of the gum phase and estimation of degumming efficiency was demonstrated.
- Enzymatic degumming
- Lamellar liquid-crystalline structure
- Water degumming