Lathrolestes ensator (Brauns) was the only parasitoid species reared from larvae of apple sawfly Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) collected in Dutch orchards. The life history parameters of apple sawfly and its parasitoid L. ensator were investigated in field and semi-field experiments. Usually, the adult parasitoids emerge in synchrony with the preferred host stage, the second instar sawfly larvae. Parasitoid females carried 120-175 eggs, but never laid more than half this number. The mortality of sawfly eggs and larvae varied from 75 and 99&Eth;The eggs and mining larvae are most vulnerable, as the older larvae survive for 90 n average. Three factors at least determine how many of the descending larvae become adult sawfly or parasitoid next spring. The failure of descending larvae to construct a cocoon varied from 7 to 31 nd was highest in clay soil. Probably a similar mechanical hindrance prohibited more emerging adults, of both sawfly and L. ensator, from attaining the surface in heavier soils next spring. Relatively more sawfly prepupae than parasitoids died in the cocoon stage, from fungus disease or other causes, but more parasitoids than hosts stayed in prolonged diapause. Mainly due to this last factor, the overall result was a decrease of the parasitoid : host ratio during the first season underground. A life table based on survival rates during various life stages yields a net reproductive rate of up to 2.4 daughters per female sawfly. It indicates that 60 f the sawfly larvae need to be parasitized to stop population growth, or correspondingly less when more than 75 f the host eggs and young larvae are killed by predators or other causes.
- apple sawfly