Long-term effects of a single application of imidacloprid on ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L., were studied in indoor laboratory microcosms, starting with the 2nd instar larvae of C. septempunctata but covering the full life cycle. The microcosms comprised enclosures containing a pot with soil planted with broad bean plants and black bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, as food. Exposure doses (0.85–13.66 g a.i. ha-1) in the long-term microcosm experiment were based on a preliminary short-term (72 h) toxicity test with 2nd instar larvae. The measurement endpoints used to calculate NOERs (No Observed Effect application Rates) included development time, hatching, pupation, adult emergence, survival and number of eggs produced. Furthermore, for these endpoints ER50 (application rate causing 50 percent effect) and LR50 (application rate causing 50 percent mortality) values were calculated when possible. The single imidacloprid application affected survival (lowest LR50 4.07 g a.i. ha-1; NOER 3.42 g a.i. ha-1), egg production (ER50 26.63 g a.i. ha-1) and egg hatching (NOER 6.83 g a.i. ha-1). Statistically significant treatment-related effects on the whole development duration, pupation and adult emergence could not be demonstrated (NOER=13.66 g a.i. ha-1). The lowest L(E)R50 values and NOERs derived from the laboratory microcosm test with C. septempunctata are lower than the reported field application rates of imidacloprid (15–60 g a.i. ha-1) in cotton cultivation in China, suggesting potential risks to beneficial arthropods.
- harmonia-axyridis coleoptera
- neonicotinoid insecticides