Impact of food texture modifications on oral processing behaviour, bolus properties and postprandial glucose responses

J.Y.M. Choy, A.T. Goh, G. Chatonidi, S. Ponnalagu, S.M.M. Wee, M. Stieger, C.G. Forde*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Several studies have demonstrated food texture manipulation on oral processing behaviour (OPB). We explored the effect of texture-differences of equivalent carbohydrate load on OPB, bolus properties and postprandial glycaemic responses (PPG). In a randomised cross-over, within-subjects, non-blinded design, healthy male participants (N = 39) consumed fixed portions of white rice (WR) and rice cake (RC) while being video recorded to measure microstructural eating behaviours. PPG was compared between test foods over a period of 120-min, and the bolus properties and saliva uptake at swallow were measured for both test foods. RC displayed higher instrumental hardness, chewiness and Young's modulus than WR (p = 0.01), and participants perceived RC as more springy and sticky than WR (p < 0.001). The RC meal was chewed more per bite (p < 0.001) and consumed at a faster eating rate (p = 0.033) than WR. WR bolus particles were smaller at swallow (p < 0.001) with a larger total surface area (p < 0.001), compared to RC. The glucose response for RC was significantly higher during the first 30-min postprandial period (p = 0.010), and lower in the later (30–120 min) postprandial period (p = 0.031) compared to WR. Total blood glucose iAUC did not differ significantly between WR and RC meals despite their large differences in texture, OPB and bolus properties. Oro-sensory exposure time was a significant predictor of glucose iAUC30min for both test meals (RC, p = 0.003; WR, p = 0.029). Saliva uptake in the bolus was significantly positively associated with blood glucose during the first 30-min postprandial period for the RC meal (p = 0.008), but not for WR. We conclude that food texture modifications can influence OPB and bolus properties which are key contributors to the dynamic evolution of the glycaemic response. Total blood glucose responses were the same for both test foods, though differences in oral processing and bolus properties influenced temporal changes in PPG.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)891-899
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Research in Food Science
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2021


  • Bolus particle size
  • Bolus surface area
  • Food texture
  • Glycemic response
  • Oral processing behaviour
  • Salivary α–amylase


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