Immunomodulation by diet : individual differences in sensitivity in layer hens

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

Abstract

Enhancing relevant immunity of production animals to achieve more
robust animals is receiving more and more attention. Several epidemics have
hit production animals recently and with devastating consequences, but enhancing
diseases resistance increasingly provides new opportunities. Furthermore,
welfare and health of production animals is becoming a more and
more consumer driven topic. Several routes are being used to approach the
possibility of enhancing immunity such as selective breeding, enriched and
altered housing conditions, vaccination programs, diet supplementation with
immune stimulating components, and other management procedures. Disease
susceptibility has been shown to be related to stress reactivity, which in turn
is related to differences in HPA axis reactivity. Interestingly, independent of
selection criteria used, the extremes of various selection procedures result in
a recurrent dichotomy in HPA axis reactivity, either being hyperresponsive
or hyporesponsive to stress. Animals with a hyperresponsive HPA axis show
greater environmental sensitivity, while the hyporeactive animals are more
intrinsically regulated. Often, research on immunomodulation is performed
with compromised animals and/or exaggerated supplementation of dietary
components in one generation of animals, but epigenetics by definition seems
to be the mechanism for mothers to prepare their offspring for the environment
they will be born into. Enhancing immunity through normal diet in uncompromised
animals is rarely investigated, let alone over generations. In this
thesis the aim was to induce immunomodulation through diet in selection lines
of chicken that have previously been selected on their antibody response to
sheep red blood cells over two generations of chicken. First, potential HPA
axis differences were examined in these selection lines to establish their environmental
sensitivity, whereafter immunomodulation through normal diet
was investigated in humoral and cellular parameters of immunity. As humoral
immunocompentence was not easily modulated, an immune trigger was
used to detect potential differences in humoral reactivity. The selection lines
showed differential sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet in both generations,
suggesting that adaptation to environmental factors may be a line-specific
(genetically based) process, with differential neuroendocrine regulation.
Most interestingly, the second generation showed effects of the diets in all the
selection lines, albeit in different manners. It is concluded that normal diet can
cause immunomodulation, mainly in animals with hyper HPA axis reactivity,
and that introducing such practices may be more beneficial when mothers are
treated, as all offspring showed immunomodulation, irrespective of selection line. While genetic background and/or epigenetic processes on neuroendocrine
and immune regulation of the individual form the framework wherein individual
immunomodulation by diet can take place, environmental conditions
determine if the modulation is beneficial or not.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Savelkoul, Huub, Promotor
  • Kemp, Bas, Promotor
  • Parmentier, Henk, Co-promotor
Award date20 Nov 2009
Place of Publication[S.l.
Publisher
Print ISBNs9789085855064
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Fingerprint

immunomodulation
laying hens
diet
immunity
animal production
animals
epigenetics
disease resistance
chickens
environmental factors
feeding preferences
selection methods
selection criteria
genetic background
dietary supplements
erythrocytes
vaccination
sheep
antibodies

Keywords

  • hens
  • poultry
  • immunomodulators
  • immunotherapy
  • poultry feeding
  • lines

Cite this

@phdthesis{27943722b61d42709a118a607c50e245,
title = "Immunomodulation by diet : individual differences in sensitivity in layer hens",
abstract = "Enhancing relevant immunity of production animals to achieve more robust animals is receiving more and more attention. Several epidemics have hit production animals recently and with devastating consequences, but enhancing diseases resistance increasingly provides new opportunities. Furthermore, welfare and health of production animals is becoming a more and more consumer driven topic. Several routes are being used to approach the possibility of enhancing immunity such as selective breeding, enriched and altered housing conditions, vaccination programs, diet supplementation with immune stimulating components, and other management procedures. Disease susceptibility has been shown to be related to stress reactivity, which in turn is related to differences in HPA axis reactivity. Interestingly, independent of selection criteria used, the extremes of various selection procedures result in a recurrent dichotomy in HPA axis reactivity, either being hyperresponsive or hyporesponsive to stress. Animals with a hyperresponsive HPA axis show greater environmental sensitivity, while the hyporeactive animals are more intrinsically regulated. Often, research on immunomodulation is performed with compromised animals and/or exaggerated supplementation of dietary components in one generation of animals, but epigenetics by definition seems to be the mechanism for mothers to prepare their offspring for the environment they will be born into. Enhancing immunity through normal diet in uncompromised animals is rarely investigated, let alone over generations. In this thesis the aim was to induce immunomodulation through diet in selection lines of chicken that have previously been selected on their antibody response to sheep red blood cells over two generations of chicken. First, potential HPA axis differences were examined in these selection lines to establish their environmental sensitivity, whereafter immunomodulation through normal diet was investigated in humoral and cellular parameters of immunity. As humoral immunocompentence was not easily modulated, an immune trigger was used to detect potential differences in humoral reactivity. The selection lines showed differential sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet in both generations, suggesting that adaptation to environmental factors may be a line-specific (genetically based) process, with differential neuroendocrine regulation. Most interestingly, the second generation showed effects of the diets in all the selection lines, albeit in different manners. It is concluded that normal diet can cause immunomodulation, mainly in animals with hyper HPA axis reactivity, and that introducing such practices may be more beneficial when mothers are treated, as all offspring showed immunomodulation, irrespective of selection line. While genetic background and/or epigenetic processes on neuroendocrine and immune regulation of the individual form the framework wherein individual immunomodulation by diet can take place, environmental conditions determine if the modulation is beneficial or not.",
keywords = "hennen, pluimvee, immunomodulatoren, immunotherapie, pluimveevoeding, lijnen, hens, poultry, immunomodulators, immunotherapy, poultry feeding, lines",
author = "R. Adriaansen-Tennekes",
note = "WU thesis 4729",
year = "2009",
language = "English",
isbn = "9789085855064",
publisher = "S.n.",
school = "Wageningen University",

}

Immunomodulation by diet : individual differences in sensitivity in layer hens. / Adriaansen-Tennekes, R.

[S.l. : S.n., 2009. 223 p.

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU

TY - THES

T1 - Immunomodulation by diet : individual differences in sensitivity in layer hens

AU - Adriaansen-Tennekes, R.

N1 - WU thesis 4729

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Enhancing relevant immunity of production animals to achieve more robust animals is receiving more and more attention. Several epidemics have hit production animals recently and with devastating consequences, but enhancing diseases resistance increasingly provides new opportunities. Furthermore, welfare and health of production animals is becoming a more and more consumer driven topic. Several routes are being used to approach the possibility of enhancing immunity such as selective breeding, enriched and altered housing conditions, vaccination programs, diet supplementation with immune stimulating components, and other management procedures. Disease susceptibility has been shown to be related to stress reactivity, which in turn is related to differences in HPA axis reactivity. Interestingly, independent of selection criteria used, the extremes of various selection procedures result in a recurrent dichotomy in HPA axis reactivity, either being hyperresponsive or hyporesponsive to stress. Animals with a hyperresponsive HPA axis show greater environmental sensitivity, while the hyporeactive animals are more intrinsically regulated. Often, research on immunomodulation is performed with compromised animals and/or exaggerated supplementation of dietary components in one generation of animals, but epigenetics by definition seems to be the mechanism for mothers to prepare their offspring for the environment they will be born into. Enhancing immunity through normal diet in uncompromised animals is rarely investigated, let alone over generations. In this thesis the aim was to induce immunomodulation through diet in selection lines of chicken that have previously been selected on their antibody response to sheep red blood cells over two generations of chicken. First, potential HPA axis differences were examined in these selection lines to establish their environmental sensitivity, whereafter immunomodulation through normal diet was investigated in humoral and cellular parameters of immunity. As humoral immunocompentence was not easily modulated, an immune trigger was used to detect potential differences in humoral reactivity. The selection lines showed differential sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet in both generations, suggesting that adaptation to environmental factors may be a line-specific (genetically based) process, with differential neuroendocrine regulation. Most interestingly, the second generation showed effects of the diets in all the selection lines, albeit in different manners. It is concluded that normal diet can cause immunomodulation, mainly in animals with hyper HPA axis reactivity, and that introducing such practices may be more beneficial when mothers are treated, as all offspring showed immunomodulation, irrespective of selection line. While genetic background and/or epigenetic processes on neuroendocrine and immune regulation of the individual form the framework wherein individual immunomodulation by diet can take place, environmental conditions determine if the modulation is beneficial or not.

AB - Enhancing relevant immunity of production animals to achieve more robust animals is receiving more and more attention. Several epidemics have hit production animals recently and with devastating consequences, but enhancing diseases resistance increasingly provides new opportunities. Furthermore, welfare and health of production animals is becoming a more and more consumer driven topic. Several routes are being used to approach the possibility of enhancing immunity such as selective breeding, enriched and altered housing conditions, vaccination programs, diet supplementation with immune stimulating components, and other management procedures. Disease susceptibility has been shown to be related to stress reactivity, which in turn is related to differences in HPA axis reactivity. Interestingly, independent of selection criteria used, the extremes of various selection procedures result in a recurrent dichotomy in HPA axis reactivity, either being hyperresponsive or hyporesponsive to stress. Animals with a hyperresponsive HPA axis show greater environmental sensitivity, while the hyporeactive animals are more intrinsically regulated. Often, research on immunomodulation is performed with compromised animals and/or exaggerated supplementation of dietary components in one generation of animals, but epigenetics by definition seems to be the mechanism for mothers to prepare their offspring for the environment they will be born into. Enhancing immunity through normal diet in uncompromised animals is rarely investigated, let alone over generations. In this thesis the aim was to induce immunomodulation through diet in selection lines of chicken that have previously been selected on their antibody response to sheep red blood cells over two generations of chicken. First, potential HPA axis differences were examined in these selection lines to establish their environmental sensitivity, whereafter immunomodulation through normal diet was investigated in humoral and cellular parameters of immunity. As humoral immunocompentence was not easily modulated, an immune trigger was used to detect potential differences in humoral reactivity. The selection lines showed differential sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet in both generations, suggesting that adaptation to environmental factors may be a line-specific (genetically based) process, with differential neuroendocrine regulation. Most interestingly, the second generation showed effects of the diets in all the selection lines, albeit in different manners. It is concluded that normal diet can cause immunomodulation, mainly in animals with hyper HPA axis reactivity, and that introducing such practices may be more beneficial when mothers are treated, as all offspring showed immunomodulation, irrespective of selection line. While genetic background and/or epigenetic processes on neuroendocrine and immune regulation of the individual form the framework wherein individual immunomodulation by diet can take place, environmental conditions determine if the modulation is beneficial or not.

KW - hennen

KW - pluimvee

KW - immunomodulatoren

KW - immunotherapie

KW - pluimveevoeding

KW - lijnen

KW - hens

KW - poultry

KW - immunomodulators

KW - immunotherapy

KW - poultry feeding

KW - lines

M3 - internal PhD, WU

SN - 9789085855064

PB - S.n.

CY - [S.l.

ER -