Immunization of young heifers with staphylococcal immune evasion proteins before natural exposure to Staphylococcus aureus induces a humoral immune response in serum and milk

Lindert Benedictus, Lars Ravesloot, Kim Poppe, Ineke Daemen, Eveline Boerhout, Jos Van Strijp, Femke Broere, Victor Rutten, Ad Koets, Susanne Eisenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, causes severe mastitis and/or chronic persistent infections with detrimental effects on the cows' wellbeing, lifespan and milk production. Despite years of research there is no effective vaccine against S. aureus mastitis. Boosting of non-protective pre-existing immunity to S. aureus, induced by natural exposure to S. aureus, by vaccination may interfere with vaccine efficacy. The aim was to assess whether experimental immunization of S. aureus naïve animals results in an immune response that differs from immunity following natural exposure to S. aureus. Results: First, to define the period during which calves are immunologically naïve for S. aureus, Efb, LukM, and whole-cell S. aureus specific serum antibodies were measured in a cohort of newborn calves by ELISA. Rising S. aureus specific antibodies indicated that from week 12 onward calves mounted an immune response to S. aureus due to natural exposure. Next, an experimental immunization trial was set up using 8-week-old heifer calves (n = 16), half of which were immunized with the immune evasion molecules Efb and LukM. Immunization was repeated after one year and before parturition and humoral and cellular immunity specific for Efb and LukM was determined throughout the study. Post-partum, antibody levels against LukM and EfB were significantly higher in serum, colostrum and milk in the experimentally immunized animals compared to animals naturally exposed to S. aureus. LukM specific IL17a responses were also significantly higher in the immunized cows post-partum. Conclusions: Experimental immunization with staphylococcal immune evasion molecules starting before natural exposure resulted in significantly higher antibody levels against Efb and LukM around parturition in serum as well as the site of infection, i.e. in colostrum and milk, compared to natural exposure to S. aureus. This study showed that it is practically feasible to vaccinate S. aureus naïve cattle and that experimental immunization induced a humoral immune response that differed from that after natural exposure only.

LanguageEnglish
Article number15
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2019

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immune evasion
Immune Evasion
Humoral Immunity
humoral immunity
Staphylococcus aureus
heifers
Immunization
immunization
Milk
milk
Serum
Proteins
proteins
Mastitis
calves
mastitis
Colostrum
antibodies
Antibodies
colostrum

Keywords

  • Cattle
  • Efb
  • Experimental immunization
  • LukM
  • Mastitis
  • Milk antibodies
  • Natural exposure
  • Non-protective immunity
  • Staphylococcus aureus

Cite this

Benedictus, Lindert ; Ravesloot, Lars ; Poppe, Kim ; Daemen, Ineke ; Boerhout, Eveline ; Van Strijp, Jos ; Broere, Femke ; Rutten, Victor ; Koets, Ad ; Eisenberg, Susanne. / Immunization of young heifers with staphylococcal immune evasion proteins before natural exposure to Staphylococcus aureus induces a humoral immune response in serum and milk. In: BMC Veterinary Research. 2019 ; Vol. 15, No. 1.
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title = "Immunization of young heifers with staphylococcal immune evasion proteins before natural exposure to Staphylococcus aureus induces a humoral immune response in serum and milk",
abstract = "Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, causes severe mastitis and/or chronic persistent infections with detrimental effects on the cows' wellbeing, lifespan and milk production. Despite years of research there is no effective vaccine against S. aureus mastitis. Boosting of non-protective pre-existing immunity to S. aureus, induced by natural exposure to S. aureus, by vaccination may interfere with vaccine efficacy. The aim was to assess whether experimental immunization of S. aureus na{\"i}ve animals results in an immune response that differs from immunity following natural exposure to S. aureus. Results: First, to define the period during which calves are immunologically na{\"i}ve for S. aureus, Efb, LukM, and whole-cell S. aureus specific serum antibodies were measured in a cohort of newborn calves by ELISA. Rising S. aureus specific antibodies indicated that from week 12 onward calves mounted an immune response to S. aureus due to natural exposure. Next, an experimental immunization trial was set up using 8-week-old heifer calves (n = 16), half of which were immunized with the immune evasion molecules Efb and LukM. Immunization was repeated after one year and before parturition and humoral and cellular immunity specific for Efb and LukM was determined throughout the study. Post-partum, antibody levels against LukM and EfB were significantly higher in serum, colostrum and milk in the experimentally immunized animals compared to animals naturally exposed to S. aureus. LukM specific IL17a responses were also significantly higher in the immunized cows post-partum. Conclusions: Experimental immunization with staphylococcal immune evasion molecules starting before natural exposure resulted in significantly higher antibody levels against Efb and LukM around parturition in serum as well as the site of infection, i.e. in colostrum and milk, compared to natural exposure to S. aureus. This study showed that it is practically feasible to vaccinate S. aureus na{\"i}ve cattle and that experimental immunization induced a humoral immune response that differed from that after natural exposure only.",
keywords = "Cattle, Efb, Experimental immunization, LukM, Mastitis, Milk antibodies, Natural exposure, Non-protective immunity, Staphylococcus aureus",
author = "Lindert Benedictus and Lars Ravesloot and Kim Poppe and Ineke Daemen and Eveline Boerhout and {Van Strijp}, Jos and Femke Broere and Victor Rutten and Ad Koets and Susanne Eisenberg",
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Immunization of young heifers with staphylococcal immune evasion proteins before natural exposure to Staphylococcus aureus induces a humoral immune response in serum and milk. / Benedictus, Lindert; Ravesloot, Lars; Poppe, Kim; Daemen, Ineke; Boerhout, Eveline; Van Strijp, Jos; Broere, Femke; Rutten, Victor; Koets, Ad; Eisenberg, Susanne.

In: BMC Veterinary Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, 15, 07.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Immunization of young heifers with staphylococcal immune evasion proteins before natural exposure to Staphylococcus aureus induces a humoral immune response in serum and milk

AU - Benedictus, Lindert

AU - Ravesloot, Lars

AU - Poppe, Kim

AU - Daemen, Ineke

AU - Boerhout, Eveline

AU - Van Strijp, Jos

AU - Broere, Femke

AU - Rutten, Victor

AU - Koets, Ad

AU - Eisenberg, Susanne

PY - 2019/1/7

Y1 - 2019/1/7

N2 - Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, causes severe mastitis and/or chronic persistent infections with detrimental effects on the cows' wellbeing, lifespan and milk production. Despite years of research there is no effective vaccine against S. aureus mastitis. Boosting of non-protective pre-existing immunity to S. aureus, induced by natural exposure to S. aureus, by vaccination may interfere with vaccine efficacy. The aim was to assess whether experimental immunization of S. aureus naïve animals results in an immune response that differs from immunity following natural exposure to S. aureus. Results: First, to define the period during which calves are immunologically naïve for S. aureus, Efb, LukM, and whole-cell S. aureus specific serum antibodies were measured in a cohort of newborn calves by ELISA. Rising S. aureus specific antibodies indicated that from week 12 onward calves mounted an immune response to S. aureus due to natural exposure. Next, an experimental immunization trial was set up using 8-week-old heifer calves (n = 16), half of which were immunized with the immune evasion molecules Efb and LukM. Immunization was repeated after one year and before parturition and humoral and cellular immunity specific for Efb and LukM was determined throughout the study. Post-partum, antibody levels against LukM and EfB were significantly higher in serum, colostrum and milk in the experimentally immunized animals compared to animals naturally exposed to S. aureus. LukM specific IL17a responses were also significantly higher in the immunized cows post-partum. Conclusions: Experimental immunization with staphylococcal immune evasion molecules starting before natural exposure resulted in significantly higher antibody levels against Efb and LukM around parturition in serum as well as the site of infection, i.e. in colostrum and milk, compared to natural exposure to S. aureus. This study showed that it is practically feasible to vaccinate S. aureus naïve cattle and that experimental immunization induced a humoral immune response that differed from that after natural exposure only.

AB - Background: Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cattle, causes severe mastitis and/or chronic persistent infections with detrimental effects on the cows' wellbeing, lifespan and milk production. Despite years of research there is no effective vaccine against S. aureus mastitis. Boosting of non-protective pre-existing immunity to S. aureus, induced by natural exposure to S. aureus, by vaccination may interfere with vaccine efficacy. The aim was to assess whether experimental immunization of S. aureus naïve animals results in an immune response that differs from immunity following natural exposure to S. aureus. Results: First, to define the period during which calves are immunologically naïve for S. aureus, Efb, LukM, and whole-cell S. aureus specific serum antibodies were measured in a cohort of newborn calves by ELISA. Rising S. aureus specific antibodies indicated that from week 12 onward calves mounted an immune response to S. aureus due to natural exposure. Next, an experimental immunization trial was set up using 8-week-old heifer calves (n = 16), half of which were immunized with the immune evasion molecules Efb and LukM. Immunization was repeated after one year and before parturition and humoral and cellular immunity specific for Efb and LukM was determined throughout the study. Post-partum, antibody levels against LukM and EfB were significantly higher in serum, colostrum and milk in the experimentally immunized animals compared to animals naturally exposed to S. aureus. LukM specific IL17a responses were also significantly higher in the immunized cows post-partum. Conclusions: Experimental immunization with staphylococcal immune evasion molecules starting before natural exposure resulted in significantly higher antibody levels against Efb and LukM around parturition in serum as well as the site of infection, i.e. in colostrum and milk, compared to natural exposure to S. aureus. This study showed that it is practically feasible to vaccinate S. aureus naïve cattle and that experimental immunization induced a humoral immune response that differed from that after natural exposure only.

KW - Cattle

KW - Efb

KW - Experimental immunization

KW - LukM

KW - Mastitis

KW - Milk antibodies

KW - Natural exposure

KW - Non-protective immunity

KW - Staphylococcus aureus

U2 - 10.1186/s12917-018-1765-9

DO - 10.1186/s12917-018-1765-9

M3 - Article

VL - 15

JO - BMC Veterinary Research

T2 - BMC Veterinary Research

JF - BMC Veterinary Research

SN - 1746-6148

IS - 1

M1 - 15

ER -