Immune Modulation by Different Types of ß2¿1-Fructans Is Toll-Like Receptor Dependent

L. Vogt, U. Ramasamy, D. Meyer, G. Pullens, K. Venema, M.M. Faas, H.A. Schols, P. de Vos

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110 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction ß2¿1-fructans are dietary fibers. Main objectives of this study were 1) to demonstrate direct signalling of ß2¿1-fructans on immune cells, 2) to study whether this is mediated by the pattern recognition receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing proteins (NODs), and 3) to relate the observed effects to the chain length differences in ß2¿1-fructans. Methods Four different ß2¿1-fructan formulations were characterised for their chain length profile. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated in vitro with ß2¿1-fructans, and production of IL-1Ra, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNF-a was analysed. Reporter cells for TLRs and NODs were incubated with ß2¿1-fructans and analysed for NF-¿B/AP-1 activation. Results Cytokine production in human PBMCs was dose- and chain length-dependent. Strikingly, short chain enriched ß2¿1-fructans induced a regulatory cytokine balance compared to long chain enriched ß2¿1-fructans as measured by IL-10/IL-12 ratios. Activation of reporter cells showed that signalling was highly dependent on TLRs and their adapter, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88). In human embryonic kidney reporter cells, TLR2 was prominently activated, while TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2 were mildly activated. Conclusions ß2¿1-fructans possess direct signalling capacity on human immune cells. By activating primarily TLR2, and to a lesser extent TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2, ß2¿1-fructan stimulation results in NF-¿B/AP-1 activation. Chain length of ß2¿1-fructans is important for the induced activation pattern and IL-10/IL-12 ratios.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere68367
Number of pages12
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Keywords

  • chain fatty-acids
  • nf-kappa-b
  • blood mononuclear-cells
  • dendritic cells
  • lactobacillus-rhamnosus
  • bifidobacterium-lactis
  • signal-transduction
  • innate immunity
  • dietary fiber
  • inulin

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