Identification of the human exercise-induced myokines using secretome analysis

M. Catoire, M.R. Mensink, E. Kalkhoven, P. Schrauwen, A.H. Kersten

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91 Citations (Scopus)


Endurance exercise is associated with significant improvements in cardio-metabolic risk parameters. A role for myokines has been hypothesized, yet limited information is available about myokines induced by acute endurance exercise in humans. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify novel exercise-induced myokines in humans. To this end, we carried out a 1 h one-legged acute endurance exercise intervention in 12 male subjects and a 12 wk exercise training intervention in 18 male subjects. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after acute exercise or exercise training and were subjected to microarray-based analysis of secreted proteins (secretome). For acute exercise, secretome analysis resulted in a list of 86 putative myokines, which was reduced to 29 by applying a fold-change cut-off of 1.5. Based on that shortlist, a selection of putative myokines was measured in the plasma by ELISA or multiplex assay. From that selection, CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and CCL2 (MCP-1) increased at both mRNA and plasma levels. From the known myokines, only IL-6 and FGF 21 changed at the mRNA level, whereas none of the known myokines changed at the plasma level. Secretome analysis of exercise training intervention resulted in a list of 69 putative myokines. Comparing putative myokines altered by acute exercise and exercise training revealed a limited overlap of only 13 genes. In conclusion, this study identified CX3CL1 and CCL2 as myokines that were induced by acute exercise at the gene expression and plasma level and that may be involved in communication between skeletal muscle and other organs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)256-267
Number of pages12
JournalPhysiological genomics
Issue number2014
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • human skeletal-muscle
  • kappa-b activity
  • plasma interleukin-6
  • insulin-resistance
  • endocrine organ
  • macrophages
  • expression
  • release
  • cells
  • mice

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