Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Colletotrichum isolates causing bitter rot of apple fruit in Belgium

Amelie Grammen*, M. Wenneker, J. Van Campenhout, K.T.K. Pham, W. Van Hemelrijck, D. Bylemans, A. Geeraerd, W. Keulemans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Worldwide Colletotrichum spp. have been identified as a problem in the apple production. This is the first study executed and confirming the presence of Colletotrichum spp. causing the postharvest disease bitter rot on apple fruits in Belgium. The identification, genetic diversity of Colletotrichum isolates (present in Belgian apple orchards) their morphological traits and pathogenicity on two apple cultivars (cvs. Pinova and Nicoter) with a different level of susceptibility were studied. Based on sequence analysis of six different gene regions beta-tubuline (TUB2), histone H3 (HIS3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), chitin synthase 1 gene (CHS-1), actin (ACT) and the Internal Transcriber Spacer (ITS) gene region, six different Colletotrichum spp., belonging to either the C. acutatum or C. gloeosporioides complexes, were isolated from twenty-one apple cultivars in three Belgian orchards: C. fioriniae, probably C. kahawae, C. salicis, C. rhombiforme, C. acutatum and C. godetiae. Colletotrichum godetiae was found to be the most present and pathogenic species in Belgian orchards. The species C. rhombiforme was found and identified on apple fruit for the first time. Reliable morphological discrimination between species, based on features such as in vitro growth rate, colony colour and spore measurements, is not possible. As such, molecular identification appears to outperform morphological analysis and was in this study the most ideal tool for identifying unknown isolates of Colletotrichum species. Inoculation assays on two apple cultivars revealed a significant difference in pathogenicity among isolates and among Colletotrichum species. The pathogenicity tests also showed that isolates coming from another host species, e.g. strawberry, are also pathogenic on apple fruits. Cultivar Pinova appeared to be more susceptible to bitter rot than cv. Nicoter. Given the difficulties with managing Colletotrichum infections, additional knowledge on the pathogen and the plant-pathogen interaction is essential for effective disease control.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-269
JournalEuropean Journal of Plant Pathology
Volume153
Issue number1
Early online date2 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Fingerprint

Colletotrichum
Belgium
pathogenicity
apples
fruits
orchards
cultivars
Fiorinia
chitin synthase
Colletotrichum acutatum
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
genes
postharvest diseases
Glomerella cingulata
histones
plant pathogens
strawberries
actin
disease control
sequence analysis

Keywords

  • Apple bitter rot
  • Inoculation assays
  • Molecular multilocus phylogeny
  • Postharvest fungal disease

Cite this

Grammen, Amelie ; Wenneker, M. ; Van Campenhout, J. ; Pham, K.T.K. ; Van Hemelrijck, W. ; Bylemans, D. ; Geeraerd, A. ; Keulemans, W. / Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Colletotrichum isolates causing bitter rot of apple fruit in Belgium. In: European Journal of Plant Pathology. 2019 ; Vol. 153, No. 1. pp. 253-269.
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title = "Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Colletotrichum isolates causing bitter rot of apple fruit in Belgium",
abstract = "Worldwide Colletotrichum spp. have been identified as a problem in the apple production. This is the first study executed and confirming the presence of Colletotrichum spp. causing the postharvest disease bitter rot on apple fruits in Belgium. The identification, genetic diversity of Colletotrichum isolates (present in Belgian apple orchards) their morphological traits and pathogenicity on two apple cultivars (cvs. Pinova and Nicoter) with a different level of susceptibility were studied. Based on sequence analysis of six different gene regions beta-tubuline (TUB2), histone H3 (HIS3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), chitin synthase 1 gene (CHS-1), actin (ACT) and the Internal Transcriber Spacer (ITS) gene region, six different Colletotrichum spp., belonging to either the C. acutatum or C. gloeosporioides complexes, were isolated from twenty-one apple cultivars in three Belgian orchards: C. fioriniae, probably C. kahawae, C. salicis, C. rhombiforme, C. acutatum and C. godetiae. Colletotrichum godetiae was found to be the most present and pathogenic species in Belgian orchards. The species C. rhombiforme was found and identified on apple fruit for the first time. Reliable morphological discrimination between species, based on features such as in vitro growth rate, colony colour and spore measurements, is not possible. As such, molecular identification appears to outperform morphological analysis and was in this study the most ideal tool for identifying unknown isolates of Colletotrichum species. Inoculation assays on two apple cultivars revealed a significant difference in pathogenicity among isolates and among Colletotrichum species. The pathogenicity tests also showed that isolates coming from another host species, e.g. strawberry, are also pathogenic on apple fruits. Cultivar Pinova appeared to be more susceptible to bitter rot than cv. Nicoter. Given the difficulties with managing Colletotrichum infections, additional knowledge on the pathogen and the plant-pathogen interaction is essential for effective disease control.",
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Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Colletotrichum isolates causing bitter rot of apple fruit in Belgium. / Grammen, Amelie; Wenneker, M.; Van Campenhout, J.; Pham, K.T.K.; Van Hemelrijck, W.; Bylemans, D.; Geeraerd, A.; Keulemans, W.

In: European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 153, No. 1, 2019, p. 253-269.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Colletotrichum isolates causing bitter rot of apple fruit in Belgium

AU - Grammen, Amelie

AU - Wenneker, M.

AU - Van Campenhout, J.

AU - Pham, K.T.K.

AU - Van Hemelrijck, W.

AU - Bylemans, D.

AU - Geeraerd, A.

AU - Keulemans, W.

PY - 2019

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N2 - Worldwide Colletotrichum spp. have been identified as a problem in the apple production. This is the first study executed and confirming the presence of Colletotrichum spp. causing the postharvest disease bitter rot on apple fruits in Belgium. The identification, genetic diversity of Colletotrichum isolates (present in Belgian apple orchards) their morphological traits and pathogenicity on two apple cultivars (cvs. Pinova and Nicoter) with a different level of susceptibility were studied. Based on sequence analysis of six different gene regions beta-tubuline (TUB2), histone H3 (HIS3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), chitin synthase 1 gene (CHS-1), actin (ACT) and the Internal Transcriber Spacer (ITS) gene region, six different Colletotrichum spp., belonging to either the C. acutatum or C. gloeosporioides complexes, were isolated from twenty-one apple cultivars in three Belgian orchards: C. fioriniae, probably C. kahawae, C. salicis, C. rhombiforme, C. acutatum and C. godetiae. Colletotrichum godetiae was found to be the most present and pathogenic species in Belgian orchards. The species C. rhombiforme was found and identified on apple fruit for the first time. Reliable morphological discrimination between species, based on features such as in vitro growth rate, colony colour and spore measurements, is not possible. As such, molecular identification appears to outperform morphological analysis and was in this study the most ideal tool for identifying unknown isolates of Colletotrichum species. Inoculation assays on two apple cultivars revealed a significant difference in pathogenicity among isolates and among Colletotrichum species. The pathogenicity tests also showed that isolates coming from another host species, e.g. strawberry, are also pathogenic on apple fruits. Cultivar Pinova appeared to be more susceptible to bitter rot than cv. Nicoter. Given the difficulties with managing Colletotrichum infections, additional knowledge on the pathogen and the plant-pathogen interaction is essential for effective disease control.

AB - Worldwide Colletotrichum spp. have been identified as a problem in the apple production. This is the first study executed and confirming the presence of Colletotrichum spp. causing the postharvest disease bitter rot on apple fruits in Belgium. The identification, genetic diversity of Colletotrichum isolates (present in Belgian apple orchards) their morphological traits and pathogenicity on two apple cultivars (cvs. Pinova and Nicoter) with a different level of susceptibility were studied. Based on sequence analysis of six different gene regions beta-tubuline (TUB2), histone H3 (HIS3), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), chitin synthase 1 gene (CHS-1), actin (ACT) and the Internal Transcriber Spacer (ITS) gene region, six different Colletotrichum spp., belonging to either the C. acutatum or C. gloeosporioides complexes, were isolated from twenty-one apple cultivars in three Belgian orchards: C. fioriniae, probably C. kahawae, C. salicis, C. rhombiforme, C. acutatum and C. godetiae. Colletotrichum godetiae was found to be the most present and pathogenic species in Belgian orchards. The species C. rhombiforme was found and identified on apple fruit for the first time. Reliable morphological discrimination between species, based on features such as in vitro growth rate, colony colour and spore measurements, is not possible. As such, molecular identification appears to outperform morphological analysis and was in this study the most ideal tool for identifying unknown isolates of Colletotrichum species. Inoculation assays on two apple cultivars revealed a significant difference in pathogenicity among isolates and among Colletotrichum species. The pathogenicity tests also showed that isolates coming from another host species, e.g. strawberry, are also pathogenic on apple fruits. Cultivar Pinova appeared to be more susceptible to bitter rot than cv. Nicoter. Given the difficulties with managing Colletotrichum infections, additional knowledge on the pathogen and the plant-pathogen interaction is essential for effective disease control.

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KW - Inoculation assays

KW - Molecular multilocus phylogeny

KW - Postharvest fungal disease

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