Neuropeptides are small signalling molecules acting as neurohormones, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Being part of the chemical communication system between cells within an organism, they are involved in the regulation of different aspects of animal physiology and behaviour such as feeding, reproduction, development and locomotion. Transcriptomic data from larval and adult tissues have been obtained and mined to generate a comprehensive neuropeptidome for the polyphagous insect pest Spodoptera exigua. Sixty-three neuropeptides have been identified and described based on their tissue specificity and their regulation in response to different abiotic perturbations. Expression analyses have identified those neuropeptides involved in ingestive and digestive behaviour of S. exigua larvae and revealed a general pattern of upregulation in the midgut during larval starvation. Our results represent a comprehensive neuropeptidome of a lepidopteran species that will be highly relevant to future studies and provide novel information of the insect’s perception of its environment.