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Oxygen limitation and dietary imbalances are key aspects influencing feed intake (FI) and growth performance in cultured fish. This study investigated the combined effects of hypoxia and dietary electrolyte balance on the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) isogenic line. Fish were fed ad libitum two experimental diets: electrolyte-balanced or -imbalanced diets (DEB 200 or 700 mEq kg-1, respectively) and exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (7.9 or 4.5 mg O2 l-1, respectively) for 42 days. DEB did not affect FI, growth performance or body composition. Nevertheless, hypoxia had a negative impact, reducing FI (6%), growth rate (8%), oxygen consumption (19%), energy (5%) and lipid (42%) contents. Digestible energy intake and heat production were higher in normoxic fish (40% and 23%, respectively), retaining 64% more energy in lipid or protein. Hypoxia reduced the apparent digestibility of dry matter, ash, protein, lipid, carbohydrates and energy. Trout fed DEB 700 diet were energetically less efficient, reflected in higher heat production and energy requirements for maintenance. FI was inhibited by low dissolved oxygen levels, but not by electrolyte-imbalanced diet, in spite of the higher energy requirements for maintenance. This study highlights the importance that dietary-electrolyte content and DO levels have on energy balance and growth performance when fish are fed to satiation.