Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands

The Kapuas and Mahakam wetlands

Hidayat Hidayat*, Ryan Teuling, Bart Vermeulen, Taufik Muh, Karl Kastner, Tjitske J. Geertsema, Dinja C.C. Bol, Dirk H. Hoekman, Gadis Sri Haryani, Henny A.J. van Lanen, Robert M. Delinom, Roel Dijksma, Gusti Z. Anshari, Nining S. Ningsih, Remko Uijlenhoet, Ton Hoitink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the catchment scale. Our main objective is to study the hydrological dynamics of one of the largest tropical rainforest regions on an island using a combination of satellite remote sensing and novel observations from dedicated field campaigns. This contribution offers a comprehensive analysis of the hydrological dynamics of two neighbouring poorly gauged tropical basins; the Kapuas basin (98g700gkm2) in West Kalimantan and the Mahakam basin (77g100gkm2) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both basins are characterised by vast areas of inland lowlands. Hereby, we put specific emphasis on key hydrological variables and indicators such as discharge and flood extent. The hydroclimatological data described herein were obtained during fieldwork campaigns carried out in the Kapuas over the period 2013-2015 and in the Mahakam over the period 2008-2010. Additionally, we used the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall estimates over the period 1998-2015 to analyse the distribution of rainfall and the influence of El-Niño - Southern Oscillation. Flood occurrence maps were obtained from the analysis of the Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images from 2007 to 2010. Drought events were derived from time series of simulated groundwater recharge using time series of TRMM rainfall estimates, potential evapotranspiration estimates and the threshold level approach. The Kapuas and the Mahakam lake regions are vast reservoirs of water of about 1000 and 1500gkm2 that can store as much as 3 and 6.5 billiongm3 of water, respectively. These storage capacity values can be doubled considering the area of flooding under vegetation cover. Discharge time series show that backwater effects are highly influential in the wetland regions, which can be partly explained by inundation dynamics shown by flood occurrence maps obtained from PALSAR images. In contrast to their nature as wetlands, both lowland areas have frequent periods with low soil moisture conditions and low groundwater recharge. The Mahakam wetland area regularly exhibits low groundwater recharge, which may lead to prolonged drought events that can last up to 13 months. It appears that the Mahakam lowland is more vulnerable to hydrological drought, leading to more frequent fire occurrences than in the Kapuas basin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2579-2594
JournalHydrology and Earth System Sciences
Volume21
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

hydrology
wetland
recharge
basin
drought
TRMM
time series
rainfall
groundwater
synthetic aperture radar
backwater
potential evapotranspiration
Southern Oscillation
tropical region
water retention
rainforest
water
vegetation cover
fieldwork
flooding

Cite this

Hidayat, Hidayat ; Teuling, Ryan ; Vermeulen, Bart ; Muh, Taufik ; Kastner, Karl ; Geertsema, Tjitske J. ; Bol, Dinja C.C. ; Hoekman, Dirk H. ; Sri Haryani, Gadis ; van Lanen, Henny A.J. ; Delinom, Robert M. ; Dijksma, Roel ; Anshari, Gusti Z. ; Ningsih, Nining S. ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Hoitink, Ton. / Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands : The Kapuas and Mahakam wetlands. In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 2017 ; Vol. 21, No. 5. pp. 2579-2594.
@article{7dbdd6990b3441a68eee95ea9a794f4a,
title = "Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands: The Kapuas and Mahakam wetlands",
abstract = "Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the catchment scale. Our main objective is to study the hydrological dynamics of one of the largest tropical rainforest regions on an island using a combination of satellite remote sensing and novel observations from dedicated field campaigns. This contribution offers a comprehensive analysis of the hydrological dynamics of two neighbouring poorly gauged tropical basins; the Kapuas basin (98g700gkm2) in West Kalimantan and the Mahakam basin (77g100gkm2) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both basins are characterised by vast areas of inland lowlands. Hereby, we put specific emphasis on key hydrological variables and indicators such as discharge and flood extent. The hydroclimatological data described herein were obtained during fieldwork campaigns carried out in the Kapuas over the period 2013-2015 and in the Mahakam over the period 2008-2010. Additionally, we used the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall estimates over the period 1998-2015 to analyse the distribution of rainfall and the influence of El-Ni{\~n}o - Southern Oscillation. Flood occurrence maps were obtained from the analysis of the Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images from 2007 to 2010. Drought events were derived from time series of simulated groundwater recharge using time series of TRMM rainfall estimates, potential evapotranspiration estimates and the threshold level approach. The Kapuas and the Mahakam lake regions are vast reservoirs of water of about 1000 and 1500gkm2 that can store as much as 3 and 6.5 billiongm3 of water, respectively. These storage capacity values can be doubled considering the area of flooding under vegetation cover. Discharge time series show that backwater effects are highly influential in the wetland regions, which can be partly explained by inundation dynamics shown by flood occurrence maps obtained from PALSAR images. In contrast to their nature as wetlands, both lowland areas have frequent periods with low soil moisture conditions and low groundwater recharge. The Mahakam wetland area regularly exhibits low groundwater recharge, which may lead to prolonged drought events that can last up to 13 months. It appears that the Mahakam lowland is more vulnerable to hydrological drought, leading to more frequent fire occurrences than in the Kapuas basin.",
author = "Hidayat Hidayat and Ryan Teuling and Bart Vermeulen and Taufik Muh and Karl Kastner and Geertsema, {Tjitske J.} and Bol, {Dinja C.C.} and Hoekman, {Dirk H.} and {Sri Haryani}, Gadis and {van Lanen}, {Henny A.J.} and Delinom, {Robert M.} and Roel Dijksma and Anshari, {Gusti Z.} and Ningsih, {Nining S.} and Remko Uijlenhoet and Ton Hoitink",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.5194/hess-21-2579-2017",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "2579--2594",
journal = "Hydrology and Earth System Sciences",
issn = "1027-5606",
publisher = "European Geosciences Union",
number = "5",

}

Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands : The Kapuas and Mahakam wetlands. / Hidayat, Hidayat; Teuling, Ryan; Vermeulen, Bart; Muh, Taufik; Kastner, Karl; Geertsema, Tjitske J.; Bol, Dinja C.C.; Hoekman, Dirk H.; Sri Haryani, Gadis; van Lanen, Henny A.J.; Delinom, Robert M.; Dijksma, Roel; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Ningsih, Nining S.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hoitink, Ton.

In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2017, p. 2579-2594.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands

T2 - The Kapuas and Mahakam wetlands

AU - Hidayat, Hidayat

AU - Teuling, Ryan

AU - Vermeulen, Bart

AU - Muh, Taufik

AU - Kastner, Karl

AU - Geertsema, Tjitske J.

AU - Bol, Dinja C.C.

AU - Hoekman, Dirk H.

AU - Sri Haryani, Gadis

AU - van Lanen, Henny A.J.

AU - Delinom, Robert M.

AU - Dijksma, Roel

AU - Anshari, Gusti Z.

AU - Ningsih, Nining S.

AU - Uijlenhoet, Remko

AU - Hoitink, Ton

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the catchment scale. Our main objective is to study the hydrological dynamics of one of the largest tropical rainforest regions on an island using a combination of satellite remote sensing and novel observations from dedicated field campaigns. This contribution offers a comprehensive analysis of the hydrological dynamics of two neighbouring poorly gauged tropical basins; the Kapuas basin (98g700gkm2) in West Kalimantan and the Mahakam basin (77g100gkm2) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both basins are characterised by vast areas of inland lowlands. Hereby, we put specific emphasis on key hydrological variables and indicators such as discharge and flood extent. The hydroclimatological data described herein were obtained during fieldwork campaigns carried out in the Kapuas over the period 2013-2015 and in the Mahakam over the period 2008-2010. Additionally, we used the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall estimates over the period 1998-2015 to analyse the distribution of rainfall and the influence of El-Niño - Southern Oscillation. Flood occurrence maps were obtained from the analysis of the Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images from 2007 to 2010. Drought events were derived from time series of simulated groundwater recharge using time series of TRMM rainfall estimates, potential evapotranspiration estimates and the threshold level approach. The Kapuas and the Mahakam lake regions are vast reservoirs of water of about 1000 and 1500gkm2 that can store as much as 3 and 6.5 billiongm3 of water, respectively. These storage capacity values can be doubled considering the area of flooding under vegetation cover. Discharge time series show that backwater effects are highly influential in the wetland regions, which can be partly explained by inundation dynamics shown by flood occurrence maps obtained from PALSAR images. In contrast to their nature as wetlands, both lowland areas have frequent periods with low soil moisture conditions and low groundwater recharge. The Mahakam wetland area regularly exhibits low groundwater recharge, which may lead to prolonged drought events that can last up to 13 months. It appears that the Mahakam lowland is more vulnerable to hydrological drought, leading to more frequent fire occurrences than in the Kapuas basin.

AB - Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the catchment scale. Our main objective is to study the hydrological dynamics of one of the largest tropical rainforest regions on an island using a combination of satellite remote sensing and novel observations from dedicated field campaigns. This contribution offers a comprehensive analysis of the hydrological dynamics of two neighbouring poorly gauged tropical basins; the Kapuas basin (98g700gkm2) in West Kalimantan and the Mahakam basin (77g100gkm2) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both basins are characterised by vast areas of inland lowlands. Hereby, we put specific emphasis on key hydrological variables and indicators such as discharge and flood extent. The hydroclimatological data described herein were obtained during fieldwork campaigns carried out in the Kapuas over the period 2013-2015 and in the Mahakam over the period 2008-2010. Additionally, we used the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall estimates over the period 1998-2015 to analyse the distribution of rainfall and the influence of El-Niño - Southern Oscillation. Flood occurrence maps were obtained from the analysis of the Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images from 2007 to 2010. Drought events were derived from time series of simulated groundwater recharge using time series of TRMM rainfall estimates, potential evapotranspiration estimates and the threshold level approach. The Kapuas and the Mahakam lake regions are vast reservoirs of water of about 1000 and 1500gkm2 that can store as much as 3 and 6.5 billiongm3 of water, respectively. These storage capacity values can be doubled considering the area of flooding under vegetation cover. Discharge time series show that backwater effects are highly influential in the wetland regions, which can be partly explained by inundation dynamics shown by flood occurrence maps obtained from PALSAR images. In contrast to their nature as wetlands, both lowland areas have frequent periods with low soil moisture conditions and low groundwater recharge. The Mahakam wetland area regularly exhibits low groundwater recharge, which may lead to prolonged drought events that can last up to 13 months. It appears that the Mahakam lowland is more vulnerable to hydrological drought, leading to more frequent fire occurrences than in the Kapuas basin.

U2 - 10.5194/hess-21-2579-2017

DO - 10.5194/hess-21-2579-2017

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 2579

EP - 2594

JO - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences

JF - Hydrology and Earth System Sciences

SN - 1027-5606

IS - 5

ER -