<p>Observational and numerical modelling studies of the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and light extinction were undertaken in the marine environment around Cape Bolinao in the Lingayen Gulf (Northwest Philippines). Abundant with ecologically important seagrasses and benthic organisms, Cape Bolinao is presently threatened with siltation and eutrophication problems. For this reason intensive field measurements of relevant enviromnental variables which include currents, tides, temperature, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), ash-free dry weight (AFDW), sedimentation flux, grain size distribution and organic content of bottom sediments, gilvin absorption, phytoplankton concentration, and light extinction were executed from August 1993 to June 1995. Laboratory experiments were simultaneously undertaken to determine the sedimentation and light extinction characteristics of various sediment fractions. Using time series and regression analyses, the results were analyzed and presented. A set of numerical models were developed and applied in the area around Cape Bolinao and the Lingayen Gulf. A prognostic model for the hydrodynamics, driven by realistic wind and tide forces, was developed independently for the cape (fine-resolution model) and the gulf (coarse resolution model). An operational open boundary condition based on the method of wave propagation is discussed. The hydrodynamical predictions were used, in conjunction with a diagnostic surface wave model, to force the suspended sediment transport model. The transport model, which is based on the time-dependent advection-diffusion equation, is third order accurate in space and time. For a realistic description of the suspended sediment transport process in Cape Bolinao, resuspension and sedimentation fluxes were included in the numerical model using existing parameterizations. The predicted suspended sediment concentrations were used in a diagnostic model for light extinction. This later model is based on the assumption that the contributions of the optically active components to the attenuation of the photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) are linearly additive. Calibration of the numerical models using field observations produced a set of parameter values which is deemed representative for the area of investigation. Using these parameter values, the overall model predictions were in good agreement with field observations. Finally, using the integrated model, the impact of river sediment loads (treated as a conservative tracer) in the Bolinao reef system was quantified.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Award date||19 Jun 1997|
|Place of Publication||Rotterdam|
|Publication status||Published - 1997|
- geological sedimentation