Human mucosal in vivo transcriptome responses to three lactobacilli indicate how probiotics may modulate human cellular pathways

P. van Baarlen, F.J. Troost, C. van der Meer, G.J.E.J. Hooiveld, M.V. Boekschoten, R.J. Brummer, M. Kleerebezem

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190 Citations (Scopus)


Probiotic bacteria, specific representatives of bacterial species that are a common part of the human microbiota, are proposed to deliver health benefits to the consumer by modulation of intestinal function through largely unknown molecular mechanisms. To explore in vivo mucosal responses of healthy adults to probiotics, we obtained transcriptomes in an intervention study after a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design. In the mucosa of the proximal small intestine of healthy volunteers, probiotic strains from the species Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, and L. rhamnosus each induced differential gene-regulatory networks and pathways in the human mucosa. Comprehensive analyses revealed that these transcriptional networks regulate major basal mucosal processes and uncovered remarkable similarity to response profiles obtained for specific bioactive molecules and drugs. This study elucidates how intestinal mucosa of healthy humans perceives different probiotics and provides avenues for rationally designed tests of clinical applications
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4562-4569
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue numberSuppl. 1
Publication statusPublished - 2011



  • antibiotic-associated diarrhea
  • intestinal epithelial-cells
  • placebo-controlled trial
  • immune tolerance
  • connectivity map
  • atopic disease
  • prevention
  • metaanalysis
  • expression
  • children

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