Human Dimensions of Widllife

M.H. Jacobs, J.J. Vaske, T.L. Teel, M.J. Manfredo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


This chapter briefly discusses a descriptive typology of attitudes towards wildlife that was quite influential in the pioneering years of research on human dimensions of wildlife. It describes a more recent theory‐driven approach to understanding human relationships with wildlife, guided by the cognitive hierarchy. The theory of cognitive hierarchy stresses that individual behaviour is guided by a hierarchy of interrelated cognitions including values, value orientations, attitudes and norms, and behavioural intentions. Studies using the wildlife value orientation scales suggest that domination orientations are deeply engrained in the cultural transmission process and endure over generations. The usefulness of studying wildlife value orientations depends on the concept's predictive validity. The cognitive hierarchy does not explicitly consider emotions. The concepts and measurements may reflect emotional content, but they are not intended to directly capture emotional dispositions or responses. Future research on human dimensions of wildlife may benefit from the study of both cognitive and emotional responses to wildlife.
Environmental Psychology

Environmental Psychology: An Introduction, Second Edition
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEnvironmental Psychology
Subtitle of host publicationAn Introduction
EditorsLinda Steg, Jim de Groot
Place of PublicationLondon
PublisherWiley & Sons
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9781119241072
ISBN (Print)9781119241089
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Cognitive hierarchy
  • Domination orientations
  • Emotional responses
  • Human dimensions
  • Wildlife value orientations


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