How Muslim Women in the Netherlands Negotiate Discrimination During Leisure Activities

M.E. Kloek, K.B.M. Peters, M. Sijtsma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Qualitative research about discrimination encountered by Muslim women in The Netherlands who are participating in leisure activities in public spaces shows that perceived discrimination is part of everyday life. This is especially true for women who wear the veil because their visible head covering signals their “otherness” to people. The discriminatory actions encountered by women in this sample are typically of a nonviolent nature and mostly comprise unpleasant looks and negative remarks. Perceived discrimination often does not prevent the women from participating in leisure activities. Instead, they actively negotiate discrimination by applying various coping strategies, including justification, direct confrontation, accepting the discrimination, and modifying leisure behavior.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-421
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • public space
  • urban parks
  • constraints
  • participation
  • recreation
  • race
  • immigration
  • ethnicity
  • americans
  • minority


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