How filamentous pathogens co-opt plants: the ins and outs of fungal effectors

R. de Jonge, M.D. Bolton, B.P.H.J. Thomma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

176 Citations (Scopus)


Research on effectors secreted by pathogens during host attack has dominated the field of molecular plant–microbe interactions over recent years. Functional analysis of type III secreted effectors injected by pathogenic bacteria into host cells has significantly advanced the field and demonstrated that many function to suppress host defense. Fungal and oomycete effectors are delivered outside the host plasma membrane, and although research has lagged behind on bacterial effectors, we are gradually learning more and more about the functions of these effectors. While some function outside the host cell to disarm defense, others exploit host cellular uptake mechanisms to suppress defense or liberate nutrients intracellularly. Comparative genomics suggests that the organization of effector genes drives effector evolution in many pathogen genomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)400-406
JournalCurrent Opinion in Plant Biology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • resistance gene
  • defense
  • virulence
  • protein
  • cells
  • host
  • expression
  • receptor
  • tomato
  • rice


Dive into the research topics of 'How filamentous pathogens co-opt plants: the ins and outs of fungal effectors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this