Anaemia and malaria are both common in pregnant women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous evidence has shown that iron supplementation may increase malaria risk. In this observational cohort study, we evaluated P. falciparum pathogenesis in vitro in RBCs from pregnant women during their 2nd and 3rd trimesters. RBCs were collected and assayed before (n = 327), 14 days (n = 82), 49 days (n = 112) and 84 days (n = 115) after iron supplementation (60 mg iron as ferrous fumarate daily). P. falciparum erythrocytic stage growth in vitro is reduced in anaemic pregnant women at baseline, but increased during supplementation. The elevated growth rates parallel increases in circulating CD71-positive reticulocytes and other markers of young RBCs. We conclude that Plasmodium growth in vitro is associated with elevated erythropoiesis, an obligate step towards erythroid recovery in response to supplementation. Our findings support current World Health Organization recommendations that iron supplementation be given in combination with malaria prevention and treatment services in malaria endemic areas.