High Versus low Dietary Protein Intake and Bone Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Abstract

Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein intake. A systematic search was conducted through October 2018 in 3 databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. We included all prospective cohort studies and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among adults aged ≥65 years that examined the relation between protein intake on bone health outcomes. Two investigators independently conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments. Authors were contacted for missing data. After screening of 523 records, twelve cohort studies and one RCT were included. Qualitative evaluation showed a positive trend between higher protein intakes and higher femoral neck and total hip BMD. Meta-analysis of four cohort studies showed that higher protein intakes resulted in a significant decrease in hip fractures (pooled hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 0.94). This systematic review supports that a protein intake above the current RDA may reduce hip fracture risk and may play a beneficial role in BMD maintenance and loss in older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1101-1112
Number of pages12
JournalComputational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Volume17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Dietary Proteins
Meta-Analysis
Bone
Health
Proteins
Bone and Bones
Bone Density
Minerals
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Cohort Studies
Hip Fractures
Randomized Controlled Trials
Pelvic Bones
Screening
Bone Remodeling
Femur Neck
Bone Fractures
MEDLINE
Osteoporosis
Young Adult

Keywords

  • Bone
  • Bone density
  • Fractures
  • Older adults
  • Protein

Cite this

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title = "High Versus low Dietary Protein Intake and Bone Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis",
abstract = "Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein intake. A systematic search was conducted through October 2018 in 3 databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. We included all prospective cohort studies and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among adults aged ≥65 years that examined the relation between protein intake on bone health outcomes. Two investigators independently conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments. Authors were contacted for missing data. After screening of 523 records, twelve cohort studies and one RCT were included. Qualitative evaluation showed a positive trend between higher protein intakes and higher femoral neck and total hip BMD. Meta-analysis of four cohort studies showed that higher protein intakes resulted in a significant decrease in hip fractures (pooled hazard ratio: 0.89; 95{\%} confidence interval: 0.84, 0.94). This systematic review supports that a protein intake above the current RDA may reduce hip fracture risk and may play a beneficial role in BMD maintenance and loss in older adults.",
keywords = "Bone, Bone density, Fractures, Older adults, Protein",
author = "Inge Groenendijk and {den Boeft}, L. and {van Loon}, {Luc J.C.} and {de Groot}, {Lisette C.P.G.M.}",
year = "2019",
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T1 - High Versus low Dietary Protein Intake and Bone Health in Older Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

AU - Groenendijk, Inge

AU - den Boeft, L.

AU - van Loon, Luc J.C.

AU - de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein intake. A systematic search was conducted through October 2018 in 3 databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. We included all prospective cohort studies and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among adults aged ≥65 years that examined the relation between protein intake on bone health outcomes. Two investigators independently conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments. Authors were contacted for missing data. After screening of 523 records, twelve cohort studies and one RCT were included. Qualitative evaluation showed a positive trend between higher protein intakes and higher femoral neck and total hip BMD. Meta-analysis of four cohort studies showed that higher protein intakes resulted in a significant decrease in hip fractures (pooled hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 0.94). This systematic review supports that a protein intake above the current RDA may reduce hip fracture risk and may play a beneficial role in BMD maintenance and loss in older adults.

AB - Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein intake. A systematic search was conducted through October 2018 in 3 databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. We included all prospective cohort studies and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among adults aged ≥65 years that examined the relation between protein intake on bone health outcomes. Two investigators independently conducted abstract and full-text screenings, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments. Authors were contacted for missing data. After screening of 523 records, twelve cohort studies and one RCT were included. Qualitative evaluation showed a positive trend between higher protein intakes and higher femoral neck and total hip BMD. Meta-analysis of four cohort studies showed that higher protein intakes resulted in a significant decrease in hip fractures (pooled hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 0.94). This systematic review supports that a protein intake above the current RDA may reduce hip fracture risk and may play a beneficial role in BMD maintenance and loss in older adults.

KW - Bone

KW - Bone density

KW - Fractures

KW - Older adults

KW - Protein

U2 - 10.1016/j.csbj.2019.07.005

DO - 10.1016/j.csbj.2019.07.005

M3 - Review article

VL - 17

SP - 1101

EP - 1112

JO - Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal

JF - Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal

SN - 2001-0370

ER -