High-resolution peat volume change in a northern peatland: Spatial variability, main drivers, and impact on ecohydrology

Jelmer J. Nijp*, Klaas Metselaar, Juul Limpens, Harm M. Bartholomeus, Mats B. Nilsson, Frank Berendse, Sjoerd E.A.T.M. van der Zee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The depth of the groundwater table below the surface and its spatiotemporal variability are major controls on all major biogeophysical processes in northern peatlands, including ecohydrology, carbon balance, and greenhouse gas exchange. In these ecosystems, water table fluctuations are buffered by compression and expansion of peat. Controls on peat volume change and its spatial variability, however, remain elusive, hampering accurate assessment of climate change impact on functioning of peatlands. We therefore (1) analysed patterning of seasonal surface elevation change at high spatial resolution (0.5 m); (2) assessed its relationship with vegetation, geohydrology, and position within the peatland; and (3) quantified the consequences for peatland surface topography and ecohydrology. Changes in surface elevation were monitored using digital close-range photogrammetry along a transect in a northern peatland from after snowmelt up to midgrowing season (May–July). Surface elevation change was substantial and varied spatially from −0.062 to +0.012 m over the measurement period. Spatial patterns of peat volume change were correlated up to 40.8 m. Spatial variation of peat volume change was mainly controlled by changes in water table, and to a lesser extent to vegetation, with peat volume change magnitude increasing from lawn < hollow < flark. Our observations suggest that patchiness and vertical variability of peatland surface topography are a function of the groundwater table. In dry conditions, the variability of surface elevation increases and more localized groundwater flows may develop. Consequently, spatially variable peat volume change may enhance peatland water retention and thereby sustain carbon uptake during drought.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2114
JournalEcohydrology
Volume12
Issue number6
Early online date27 May 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

Fingerprint

ecohydrology
volume change
peatlands
peatland
peat
water table
topography
photogrammetry
hydrogeology
vegetation
groundwater
carbon
carbon balance
patchiness
snowmelt
groundwater flow
water retention
greenhouse gases
gas exchange
spatial variation

Keywords

  • compression
  • ecohydrology
  • geostatistics
  • groundwater
  • peat volume change
  • peatlands
  • photogrammetry
  • spatial patterns

Cite this

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title = "High-resolution peat volume change in a northern peatland: Spatial variability, main drivers, and impact on ecohydrology",
abstract = "The depth of the groundwater table below the surface and its spatiotemporal variability are major controls on all major biogeophysical processes in northern peatlands, including ecohydrology, carbon balance, and greenhouse gas exchange. In these ecosystems, water table fluctuations are buffered by compression and expansion of peat. Controls on peat volume change and its spatial variability, however, remain elusive, hampering accurate assessment of climate change impact on functioning of peatlands. We therefore (1) analysed patterning of seasonal surface elevation change at high spatial resolution (0.5 m); (2) assessed its relationship with vegetation, geohydrology, and position within the peatland; and (3) quantified the consequences for peatland surface topography and ecohydrology. Changes in surface elevation were monitored using digital close-range photogrammetry along a transect in a northern peatland from after snowmelt up to midgrowing season (May–July). Surface elevation change was substantial and varied spatially from −0.062 to +0.012 m over the measurement period. Spatial patterns of peat volume change were correlated up to 40.8 m. Spatial variation of peat volume change was mainly controlled by changes in water table, and to a lesser extent to vegetation, with peat volume change magnitude increasing from lawn < hollow < flark. Our observations suggest that patchiness and vertical variability of peatland surface topography are a function of the groundwater table. In dry conditions, the variability of surface elevation increases and more localized groundwater flows may develop. Consequently, spatially variable peat volume change may enhance peatland water retention and thereby sustain carbon uptake during drought.",
keywords = "compression, ecohydrology, geostatistics, groundwater, peat volume change, peatlands, photogrammetry, spatial patterns",
author = "Nijp, {Jelmer J.} and Klaas Metselaar and Juul Limpens and Bartholomeus, {Harm M.} and Nilsson, {Mats B.} and Frank Berendse and {van der Zee}, {Sjoerd E.A.T.M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1002/eco.2114",
language = "English",
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journal = "Ecohydrology",
issn = "1936-0584",
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T1 - High-resolution peat volume change in a northern peatland: Spatial variability, main drivers, and impact on ecohydrology

AU - Nijp, Jelmer J.

AU - Metselaar, Klaas

AU - Limpens, Juul

AU - Bartholomeus, Harm M.

AU - Nilsson, Mats B.

AU - Berendse, Frank

AU - van der Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M.

PY - 2019/9

Y1 - 2019/9

N2 - The depth of the groundwater table below the surface and its spatiotemporal variability are major controls on all major biogeophysical processes in northern peatlands, including ecohydrology, carbon balance, and greenhouse gas exchange. In these ecosystems, water table fluctuations are buffered by compression and expansion of peat. Controls on peat volume change and its spatial variability, however, remain elusive, hampering accurate assessment of climate change impact on functioning of peatlands. We therefore (1) analysed patterning of seasonal surface elevation change at high spatial resolution (0.5 m); (2) assessed its relationship with vegetation, geohydrology, and position within the peatland; and (3) quantified the consequences for peatland surface topography and ecohydrology. Changes in surface elevation were monitored using digital close-range photogrammetry along a transect in a northern peatland from after snowmelt up to midgrowing season (May–July). Surface elevation change was substantial and varied spatially from −0.062 to +0.012 m over the measurement period. Spatial patterns of peat volume change were correlated up to 40.8 m. Spatial variation of peat volume change was mainly controlled by changes in water table, and to a lesser extent to vegetation, with peat volume change magnitude increasing from lawn < hollow < flark. Our observations suggest that patchiness and vertical variability of peatland surface topography are a function of the groundwater table. In dry conditions, the variability of surface elevation increases and more localized groundwater flows may develop. Consequently, spatially variable peat volume change may enhance peatland water retention and thereby sustain carbon uptake during drought.

AB - The depth of the groundwater table below the surface and its spatiotemporal variability are major controls on all major biogeophysical processes in northern peatlands, including ecohydrology, carbon balance, and greenhouse gas exchange. In these ecosystems, water table fluctuations are buffered by compression and expansion of peat. Controls on peat volume change and its spatial variability, however, remain elusive, hampering accurate assessment of climate change impact on functioning of peatlands. We therefore (1) analysed patterning of seasonal surface elevation change at high spatial resolution (0.5 m); (2) assessed its relationship with vegetation, geohydrology, and position within the peatland; and (3) quantified the consequences for peatland surface topography and ecohydrology. Changes in surface elevation were monitored using digital close-range photogrammetry along a transect in a northern peatland from after snowmelt up to midgrowing season (May–July). Surface elevation change was substantial and varied spatially from −0.062 to +0.012 m over the measurement period. Spatial patterns of peat volume change were correlated up to 40.8 m. Spatial variation of peat volume change was mainly controlled by changes in water table, and to a lesser extent to vegetation, with peat volume change magnitude increasing from lawn < hollow < flark. Our observations suggest that patchiness and vertical variability of peatland surface topography are a function of the groundwater table. In dry conditions, the variability of surface elevation increases and more localized groundwater flows may develop. Consequently, spatially variable peat volume change may enhance peatland water retention and thereby sustain carbon uptake during drought.

KW - compression

KW - ecohydrology

KW - geostatistics

KW - groundwater

KW - peat volume change

KW - peatlands

KW - photogrammetry

KW - spatial patterns

U2 - 10.1002/eco.2114

DO - 10.1002/eco.2114

M3 - Article

VL - 12

JO - Ecohydrology

JF - Ecohydrology

SN - 1936-0584

IS - 6

M1 - e2114

ER -