Background: It is well known that adiposity is a risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the associations of measures of adiposity with indices of glycemia and of glycemic variability over a 72-h period in non-diabetic older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in non-diabetic individuals from the Active and Healthy Aging Study (N = 228), Switchbox (N = 116), and the Growing Old Together Study (N = 94). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured, and indices of glycemia and glycemic variability were derived from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using the Mini-Med® CGM system. Associations between adiposity and CGM were studied separately for the three cohorts, and derived estimates were subsequently meta-analyzed. Results: After meta-analyzing the results from the separate cohorts, individuals with a higher BMI had higher levels of glycemia. Individuals with BMI between 30 and 35 kg/m2 had 0.28 mmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12-0.44] higher 72 h-mean glucose concentration, 0.26 mmol/L (0.10-0.42) higher diurnal glucose (6:00 a.m. to 0:00 a.m.), and 0.39 mmol/L (0.19; 0.59) higher nocturnal glucose (3:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m.) than participants with a normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2). However, no associations were observed between higher BMI and glycemic variability. Results for glycemia and glycemic variability were similarly observed for a high waist circumference. Conclusion: High adiposity associates with constant higher mean glucose levels over the day in non-diabetic older adults.
- Body composition
- Continuous glucose monitoring
- Glycemic variability