ORF100 (ha100) of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) has been reported as one of the unique genes of group II alphabaculoviruses encoding a protein located in the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) envelope and nucleocapsid. The protein consists of 510 aa with a predicted mass of 58.1 kDa and is a homologue of poly(ADP–ribose) glycohydrolase in eukaryotes. Western blot analysis detected a 60 kDa band in HearNPV-infected HzAM1 cells starting at 18 h post-infection. Transient expression of GFP-fused HA100 in HzAM1 cells resulted in cytoplasmic localization of the protein, but after superinfection with HearNPV, GFPfused HA100 was localized in the nucleus. To study the function of HA100 further, an ha100-null virus was constructed using bacmid technology. Viral one-step growth curve analyses showed that the ha100-null virus had similar budded virus production kinetics to that of the parental virus. Electron microscopy revealed that deletion of HA100 did not alter the morphology of ODVs or occlusion bodies (OBs). However, bioassays in larvae showed that the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of HA100-null OBs was significantly higher than that of parental OBs; the median lethal time (LT50) of ha100-null OBs was about 24 h later than control virus. These results indicate that HA100 is not essential for virus replication in vitro. However, it significantly affects the oral infectivity of OBs in host insects, suggesting that the association HA100 with the ODV contributes to the infectivity of OBs in vivo.
- single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus
- nuclear polyhedrosis-virus
- multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus