Heavy-metal Balances, Part II. Management of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in European Agro-Ecosystems

S.W. Moolenaar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of sustainable heavy-metal management in agro-ecosystems is to ensure that the soil continues to fulfill its functions: in agricultural production, in environmental processes such as the cycling of elements, and as a habitat of numerous organisms. To understand and manage heavy-metal flows effectively, a consistent approach to modeling the flows is needed within the particular agro-system under study. General aspects of heavy-metal balance studies in agro-ecosystems were described in part I of this study. In this article (part II), several European studies of heavy-metal balances at varying spatial scales and in a variety of agro-ecosystems are reviewed. Sectoral studies at the national and international levels provide information for economic analyses and generic regulations; however, policies implemented at these levels often ignore farm characteristics and individual management options. Field-scale and farm-gate balances give farmers specific feedback on effective options for better heavy-metal management. Heavy-metal balances could be incorporated in an environmental management system of certified farms. In this way, farm certification may well serve as a basis from which to develop policy to address environmental issues in agriculture.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-53
JournalJournal of Industrial Ecology
Publication statusPublished - 2000

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