Hazards and risks of process related contaminants in feed and foods of animal origin formed as a result of heating

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Heating of feed and food at high temperatures is known to result in the formation of process related contaminants that may raise health concerns for the consumer. These processes related contaminants formed during heating of feed and food include acrylamide, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic amines (HCAs), acrolein, 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters. The present chapter provides an overview of the hazards and risks of these process related contaminants from heating, focussing on feed and food of animal origin. Acrylamide, furans, PAHs, HCAs and glycidyl esters are of concern because they are genotoxic and carcinogenic. Risk assessment of the levels of these process related contaminants in food in general as well as in food from animal origin was done using the margin of exposure approach. The results obtained indicate that for acrylamide, current exposure levels are of concern, although the risks for the consumer of acrylamide in food may originate mainly from other food categories than from food of animal origin. Also exposure to glycidol and its esters may raise a concern with fried and roast meat being among the major contributors to current levels of exposure. Exposure of the consumer to furans is also estimated to occur at levels that raise a health concern, but major dietary exposure is likely to come from other food products than food from animal origin. For PAHs, especially high level exposure raises a concern, with seafood and seafood products and also meat products contributing substantially to current exposure levels. HCAs and 3-MCPD and its esters are present in processed fish and meat but not at levels that give rise to a safety concern. Finally, exposure to acrolein may be at levels below the currently established tolerable daily intake (TDI). Intake from foods with high acrolein content may increase exposure to levels above the TDI, but this is not likely as a result of consumption of food of animal origin. It is concluded that of all process related contaminants from heating and present in food of animal origin, especially PAHs and glycidol and its esters may require risk management actions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationChemical hazards in foods of animal origin
EditorsF.J.M. Smulders, I.M.C.M. Rietjens, M. Rose
PublisherWageningen Academic Publishers
ISBN (Electronic)9789086868773
ISBN (Print)9789086863266
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2019

Publication series

NameChemical hazards in foods of animal origin
ISSN (Print)1871-9295


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