Whilst a diverse array of phosphorus (P)-adsorbent materials is currently available for application to freshwater aquatic systems, selection of the most appropriate P-adsorbents remains problematic. In particular, there has to be a close correspondence between attributes of the P-adsorbent, its field performance and the management goals for treatment. These management goals may vary from a rapid reduction in dissolved P to address seasonal enrichments from internal loading, targeting external fluxes due to anthropogenic sources, or long-term inactivation of internal P inventories contained within bottom sediments. It also remains a challenge to develop new methods and materials that are ecologically benign and cost-effective. We draw on evidence in the literature and the authors’ personal experiences in the field, to summarise the attributes of a range of P-adsorbent materials. We offer ‘guiding principles’ to support practical use of existing materials and outline key development needs for new materials.
- Phosphorus adsorptive materials