Guidelines for quality control of commercially produced natural enmies.

J.C. van Lenteren, A. Hale, J.N. Klapwijk, J. van Schelt, S. Steinberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic


Lack of quality control procedures during the mass production of natural enemies may lead to failures in biological pest control. An example is presented of deteriorating efficiency of a natural enemy before quality control was applied and the measures that were taken to restore quality. Although some producers of beneficial insects and mites have applied quality control in one form or another for more than 30 years, it was only during the past 10 years that collaboration between researchers and the biocontrol industry resulted in the development of the 30 harmonized quality control guidelines that are presented in this chapter. Most guidelines have been ring-tested by commercial producers; some are still in development. For each natural enemy the test conditions and the quality control criteria are given. Finally, future developments in quality control are discussed, such as the need to develop flight and performance tests, and the wish of farmers to obtain a set of simple tests for quality control of natural enemies once they have arrived at the farm.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationQuality Control and Production of Biological Control Agents:
Subtitle of host publicationTheory and testing procedures.
EditorsJ.C. van Lenteren
Place of PublicationWallingford
PublisherCABI Publishing
ISBN (Print)9780851996882
Publication statusPublished - 2003


  • biological control agents
  • natural enemies
  • mass rearing
  • trade
  • quality controls
  • guidelines

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