Gryphsens: A smartphone-based portable diagnostic reader for the rapid detection of progesterone in milk

Hyunwook Jang, Syed Rahin Ahmed, Suresh Neethirajan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a popular assay technique for the detection and quantification of various biological substances due its high sensitivity and specificity. More often, it requires large and expensive laboratory instruments, which makes it difficult to conduct when the tests must be performed quickly at the point-of-care (POC). To increase portability and ease of use, we propose a portable diagnostic system based on a Raspberry Pi imaging sensor for the rapid detection of progesterone in milk samples. We designed, assembled, and tested a standalone portable diagnostic reader and validated it for progesterone detection against a standard ELISA assay using a commercial plate reader. The portable POC device yielded consistent results, regardless of differences in the cameras and flashlights between various smartphone devices. An Android application was built to provide front-end access to users, control the diagnostic reader, and display and store the progesterone measurement on the smartphone. The diagnostic reader takes images of the samples, reads the pixel values, processes the results, and presents the results on the handheld device. The proposed POC reader can perform to superior levels of performance as a plate reader, while adding the desirable qualities of portability and ease of use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1079
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Android application
  • Image analysis
  • Immunoassay
  • Point-of-care reader
  • Progesterone detection


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