study was conducted to compare growth and feed utilization of Oreochromis aureus fed graded levels of coffee pulp (CoP) and reared in aquaria or in pens. Diets contained 0, 130, 260 and 390 g kg-1 of oven-dried CoP. In aquaria, fish receiving increasing dietary CoP levels (from 0 to 390 g kg-1) showed a progressive reduction in final body weight, growth rate and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (P0.05). High dietary fibre levels together with the presence of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in CoP diets may explain why tilapia grew less and had lower feed utilization. Natural productivity of the pond could explain why results in pens were better than in aquaria. Results indicated that inclusion of CoP in tilapia diets might be limited to no more than 130 g kg-1 when fish are raised in earthen ponds and natural food is available.
Ulloa Rojas, J. B., & Verreth, J. A. J. (2003). Growth of Oreochromis aureus fed with diets containing graded levels of coffee pulp and reared in two culture systems. Aquaculture, 217(39539), 275-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00273-9