Growth and reproduction of horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (carangidae)

P. Abaunza, L. Gordo, C. Karlou-Riga, A. Murta, A.T.G.W. Eltink, M.T. Garcia Santamaria, C. Zimmermann

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    93 Citations (Scopus)


    There is a broad knowledge of the growth and reproduction of Trachurus trachurus, although important gaps still exist. Horse mackerel are a long-lived species, reaching up to 40 years of age. They have isometric growth, although the alometric parameter b may vary throughout the year and in relation to latitude. Growth to age 3 is rapid compared to slower growth later in life. Phenomena of density dependent growth have been observed in the northeast Atlantic. Horse mackerel are an asynchronous species. The following stages of atresia have been validated in horse mackerel: alpha, beta, and delta. The transition in females from the spawning state to post spawning is very fast. The spawning fraction in horse mackerel is estimated to be between 8.3 nd 20.9&Eth;Horse mackerel have a long spawning season (up to 8 months), which varies according to geography. Length at first maturity is between 16 and 25 cm, most commonly around 21 cm. Males mature at a slightly smaller length than females. The age at first maturity for females has been estimated to range from 2 to 4 years, depending on the geography. Batch fecundity has been estimated to range between 172¿209 oocytes per gram-female-weight. Female spawning lasts between 65 and 94 days. An individual female can release from 5 to 16 batches during the spawning period. The estimated potential annual relative fecundity ranges from 1040 to 3280 oocytes per gram-female-weight
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)27-61
    JournalReviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2003


    • saronikos gulf greece
    • fish otoliths
    • spawning frequency
    • north-sea
    • fundulus-heteroclitus
    • gastric evacuation
    • back-calculation
    • sexual-maturity
    • batch fecundity
    • oocyte growth


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