Growth and development of three plant accessions with potential for use as trap crops for potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Solanum sisymbriifolium and two varieties of S. nigrum, were studied under 12 h and 17 h photoperiods. In pot experiments, rate of plant emergence, plant height, and shoot and root mass were greater for the S. nigrum varieties ‘90-4750-188’ and ‘88-4750-061’ than for S. sisymbriifolium and markedly greater than for a S. nigrum variety found as a weed of arable fields in The Netherlands. However, the last mentioned S. nigrum variety produced the most berries. Plant height and shoot weight of all the S. nigrum varieties were greater under the longer photoperiod, whereas the root mass was hardly affected. Plant height and shoot weight of S. sisymbriifolium also were greater under the longer photoperiod but the root weight was less. Under field conditions, with sowing dates from the end of March to mid August, S. sisymbriifolium and S. nigrum ‘90-4750-188’ grew better than S. nigrum ‘88-4750-061’. In contrast to S. nigrum, S. sisymbriifolium appeared resistant to night frosts in autumn. The stubbles of both S. sisymbriifolium and S. nigrum showed good regrowth after cutting the plants 5 or 10 cm above the soil surface 11 wk after sowing. In a pot experiment, all the plant accessions strongly reduced the numbers of juveniles in cysts compared with flax. Tolerance to Globodera rostochiensis of S. sisymbriifolium and S. nigrum‘90-4750-188’ was investigated in pot experiments under glasshouse conditions in sandy soil at pH 4.8 and 6.0. At soil infestation levels ranging from 0 to 56 juveniles ml−1 soil, S. sisymbriifolium appeared much more tolerant than S. nigrum ‘90-4750-188’. Shoot yield of S. nigrum decreased markedly with increasing soil infestation and root weight also decreased, except at pH 4.8 and light infestation levels. Both S. sisymbriifolium and S. nigrum grew better at soil pH 4.8 than 6.0. The proportion of lateral roots in the total root mass increased in both species with increasing PCN infestation and soil pH. However, although the proportion of lateral roots in plants grown at soil pH 6.0 was greater at PCN infestations up to 14 juveniles ml−1 soil, the proportion of laterals in S. nigrum was considerably less at PCN infestations of 56 juveniles ml−1 soil. The proportion of PCN juveniles hatching was similar for the two species and decreased slightly with increasing initial nematode population densities.
|Journal||Annals of Applied Biology|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|