Groundwater quality evaluation using Shannon information theory and human health risk assessment in Yazd province, central plateau of Iran

Vahab Amiri*, Salahaddin Kamrani, Arslan Ahmad, Prosun Bhattacharya, Javad Mansoori

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study aims to evaluate the quality of groundwater in the most arid province of Iran, Yazd. It is highly dependent on groundwater resources to meet the domestic, industrial, and agricultural water demand. Position of water samples on the modified Gibbs diagram demonstrates that the interaction with silicates and the increase in direct cation exchange are responsible for the increased salinity of groundwater. Based on entropy theory, the decreasing order of importance of variables in controlling groundwater chemistry is Fe > As > Ba > Hg > NO2 > Pb > K > Cl > Na > Mg > SO4 > NO3 > HCO3 > Ca. The results of entropy weighted water quality index (EWWQI) calculation show that about 34 and 32% of 206 samples in the wet and dry seasons, respectively, are classified as extremely poor quality (ranks 4 and 5). Approximately 60 and 55% of 206 samples in wet and dry seasons, respectively, have excellent, good, and medium quality (ranks 1, 2, and 3). The non-carcinogenic human health risk (NHHR) from intake and dermal contact pathways using deterministic approach show that 36 and 17 samples in both seasons are not suitable for drinking by children. Furthermore, 9 and 2 samples are not suitable for drinking by adults. The results show that children are more vulnerable than adults to these health risks. The non-carcinogenic risks through dermal contact were negligible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1108-1130
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume28
Early online date24 Aug 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Keywords

  • EWWQI
  • Groundwater quality
  • Health risk
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Yazd province

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