Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Netherlands in 2018 decreased by approximately 2.7 percent, in comparison with 2017 emissions. This decrease was mainly the result of decreased coal combustion for energy and heat production.In 2018, total GHG emissions (including indirect CO2 emissions and excluding emissions from Land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF)) in the Netherlands amounted to 188.2 Tg CO2 eq. This is approximately 15.1 percent below the emissions in the base year 1990 (221.7 Tg CO2 eq.).CO2 emissions in 2018 were 1.6 percent below the level in the base year. The total of the emissions of methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases (CH4, N2O and F-gases) was reduced by more than 50% over this period.This report documents the Netherlands’ annual submission for 2020 of its GHG emissions inventory in accordance with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC, 2006) prescribed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol (KP) and the European Union’s Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism.This report includes explanations of observed trends in emissions, an assessment of the sources with the highest contribution to total national emissions (key sources) and a description of the uncertainty in the emissions es timates. Estimation methods, data sources and emission factors (EFs) are described for each source category, and there is also a description of the quality assurance system and the verification activities performed on the data. The report also describes changes in methodologies since the previous submission (NIR 2019), the results of recalculations and planned improvements.