Green-Fluorescent Protein from the Bioluminescent Jellyfish Clytia gregaria Is an Obligate Dimer and Does Not Form a Stable Complex with the Ca2+-Discharged Photoprotein Clytin.

N.P. Malikova, N.V. Visser, A. van Hoek, V.V. Skakun, E.S. Vysotski, J. Lee, A.J.W.G. Visser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Green-fluorescent protein (GFP) is the origin of the green bioluminescence color exhibited by several marine hydrozoans and anthozoans. The mechanism is believed to be Fo¨rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) within a luciferase-GFP or photoprotein-GFP complex. As the effect is found in vitro at micromolar concentrations, for FRET to occur this complex must have an affinity in the micromolar range. We present here a fluorescence dynamics investigation of the recombinant bioluminescence proteins from the jellyfish Clytia gregaria, the photoprotein clytin in its Ca2+-discharged form that is highly fluorescent (¿max = 506 nm) and its GFP (cgreGFP; ¿max = 500 nm). Ca2+-discharged clytin shows a predominant fluorescence lifetime of 5.7 ns, which is assigned to the final emitting state of the bioluminescence reaction product, coelenteramide anion, and a fluorescence anisotropy decay or rotational correlation time of 12 ns (20 °C), consistent with tight binding and rotation with the whole protein. A 34 ns correlation time combined with a translational diffusion constant and molecular brightness from fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy all confirm that cgreGFP is an obligate dimer down to nanomolar concentrations. Within the dimer, the two chromophores have a coupled excited-state transition yielding fluorescence depolarization via FRET with a transfer correlation time of 0.5 ns. The 34 ns time of cgreGFP showed no change upon addition of a 1000-fold excess of Ca2+-discharged clytin, indicating no stable complexation below 0.2 mM. It is proposed that any bioluminescence FRET complex with micromolar affinity must be one formed transiently by the cgreGFP dimer with a short-lived (millisecond) intermediate in the clytin reaction pathway.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4232-4241
JournalBiochemistry
Volume50
Issue number20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • vibrio-fischeri y1
  • energy-transfer
  • correlation spectroscopy
  • bacterial luciferase
  • refractive-index
  • photobacterium-leiognathi
  • polarized fluorescence
  • excitation transfer
  • recombinant obelin
  • lumazine protein

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