Global trends in the production and use of DDT for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases

Henk van den Berg*, Gamini Manuweera, Flemming Konradsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

129 Citations (Scopus)


Background: DDT was among the initial persistent organic pollutants listed under the Stockholm Convention and continues to be used for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in accordance with its provisions on acceptable purposes. Trends in the production and use of DDT were evaluated over the period 2001-2014. Results: Available data on global production of DDT showed a 32% decline over the reporting period, from 5144 to 3491 metric tons of active ingredient p.a. Similarly, global use of DDT, for control of malaria and leishmaniasis, showed a 30% decline over the period 2001-2014, from 5388 metric tons p.a. to 3772 metric tons p.a. India has been by far the largest producer and user of DDT. In some countries, DDT is used in response to the development of resistance in malaria vectors against pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. Some other countries have stopped using DDT, in compliance to the Convention, or in response to DDT resistance in malaria vectors. Progress has been made in establishing or amending national legal measures on DDT, with the majority of countries reportedly having measures in place that prohibit, or restrict, the production, import, export and use of DDT. Limitations in achieving the objectives of the Stockholm Convention with regard to DDT include major shortcomings in periodic reporting by Parties to the Stockholm Convention, and deficiencies in reporting to the DDT Register. Conclusion: Global production and global use of DDT have shown a modest decline since the adoption of the Stockholm Convention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number401
Number of pages8
JournalMalaria Journal
Publication statusPublished - 5 Oct 2017


  • Insecticide resistance
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Malaria
  • Vector control
  • 017-4049


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