Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

N.J. Kassebaum, R.M. Barber, L. Dandona, S.I. Hay, H.J. Larson, S.S. Lim, A.D. Lopez, A.H. Mokdad, M. Naghavi, C. Pinho, C. Steiner, T. Vos, H. Wang, T. Achoki, G.M. Anderson, M. Arora, S. Biryukov, J.D. Blore, A. Carter, D.C. CaseyM.M. Coates, M. Coggeshall, D.J. Dicker, E. Dossou, T. Fleming, M.S. Fraser, J. Friedman, N. Fullman, N. Graetz, J. Hancock, C. Huynh, M. Iannarone, L. Kemmer, X.R. Kulikoff, M.J. Kutz, P.Y. Liu, N. Marquez, A. Misganaw, M.D. Mooney, M. Moradi-Lakeh, M. Ng, G. Nguyen, A. Pain, K.A. Shackelford, N. Silpakit, A. Sligar, J.M. Smith, R.J.D. Sorensen, S.E. Vollset, J.A. Wagner, T. Wolock, Y. Zhao, M. Zhou, C.J.L. Murray, B.E. Ebel, N.D. Futran, K.M. Harun, Z.A. Bhutta, M.I. Nisar, N. Akseer, P. Jeemon, R. Dandona, S. Goenka, G.A. Kumar, P.W. Gething, D. Bisanzio, A. Deribew, C. Cooper, R. Ali, D.A. Bennett, V. Jha, K. Rahimi, Y. Kinfu, G.V.S. Murthy, Y. Li, S. Liu, L. Wang, X. Liang, S. Yu, P. Azzopardi, K.B. Gibney, A. Meretoja, C.E.I. Szoeke, K. Alam, S.M. Colquhoun, R.G. Weintraub, T. Wijeratne, R. Lozano, I.R. Campos-Nonato, J.C. Campuzano, H. Gomez-Dantes, H. Lamadrid-Figueroa, F. Mejia-Rodriguez, J.C. Montañez Hernandez, P. Montero, G.A. Mensah, J.A. Salomon, A.L. Thorne-Lyman, O.N. Ajala, T. Bärnighausen, E.L. Ding, M.S. Farvid, J.R.A. Fitchett, A.A. Abajobir, L.D. Knibbs, R. Lalloo, N.K.M. Alam, Y. Guo, K.H. Abate, T.T. Gebrehiwot, A.T. Gebremedhin, K.M. Abbas, F. Abd-Allah, M.A. Abdallat, A.M. Abdulle, S.F. Abera, Y.A. Melaku, F.H. Tesfay, A.F. Aregay, T.A. Bayou, B.D. Betsu, M. Gebremedhin, A.A. Gebru, G.B. Hailu, T. Tekle, A.Z. Yalew, H.G. Yebyo, V. Aboyans, I. Abubakar, R.W. Aldridge, A. Banerjee, N.M. Aburmeileh, A.O. Adebiyi, A.L. Adelekan, F.A. Ojelabi, I.A. Adedeji, A.L. Adelekan, A.K. Adou, K.A. Afanvi, A. Badawi, A. Agarwal, Ahmad Kiadaliri, T.F. Akinyemiju, D.C. Schwebel, J.A. Singh, Z. Al-Aly, A.H. Kemp, J. Leigh, A.B. Mekonnen, D. Alasfoor, S.F. Aldhahri, A.S. Terkawi, S. Alhabib, A. Alkerwi, F. Alla, R. Al-Raddadi, U. Alsharif, E. Alvarez Martin, N. Alvis-Guzman, A.T. Amare, L.G. Ciobanu, G.A. Tessema, T. Setegn, A. Amberbir, A.K. Amegah, A.A. Kudom, W. Ammar, H.L. Harb, S.M. Amrock, H.H. Andersen, R.M. Antoine, C.A.T. Antonio, E.J.A. Faraon, J. Ärnlöv, A. Larsson, V.S. Arsic Arsenijevic, A. Barac, A. Artaman, H. Asayesh, S. Atique, E.F.G.A. Avokpaho, A. Awasthi, B.P. Ayala Quintanilla, U. Bacha, M.C. Bahit, K. Balakrishnan, S.L. Barker-Collo, S. Mohammed, S. Basu, Y.T. Bayou, S. Bazargan-Hejazi, J. Beardsley, N. Bedi, T. Bekele, M.L. Bell, B.J. Biroscak, J.J. Huang, I.S. Santos, I.M. Bensenor, P.A. Lotufo, A. Berhane, C.D. Wolfe, E. Bernabé, A.S. Beyene, S. Biadgilign, B. Bikbov, A.A. Bin Abdulhak, E. Bjertness, A.S. Htet, M. Brainin, A. Brazinova, M. Majdan, J. Shen, N.J.K. Breitborde, T.S. Brugha, Z.A. Butt, R. Cárdenas, S. Fereshtehnejad, M. Kivipelto, E. Weiderpass, R. Havmoeller, S. Sindi, C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela, R.E. Castro, F. Catalá-López, F. Cavalleri, V. Colistro, H. Chang, J. Chang, L. Chavan, C.E. Chibueze, V.H. Chisumpa, C.C. Mapoma, F. Masiye, J.J. Choi, R. Chowdhury, D.J. Christopher, M. Cirillo, L.T. Cooper, T. Dahiru, A. Damasceno, H. Danawi, A.H. Refaat, J. Das Neves, J.V. Santos, D. De Leo, R.P. Dellavalle, K. Deribe, A.D. Hailu, W. Tefera, A.Z. Giref, T. Jibat, G. Temam Shifa, D.C. Des Jarlais, S.D. Dharmaratne, M. Dubey, M.H.U. Rahman, U. Ram, A. Singh, A.K. Yadav, C.L. Ellingsen, M. Savic, V. Skirbekk, I. Elyazar, S.P. Ermakov, S. Soshnikov, B. Eshrati, F. Farzadfar, A. Kasaeian, F. Pishgar, A. Esteghamati, N. Hafezi-Nejad, S. Sheikhbahaei, A. Khosravi, R. Malekzadeh, G. Roshandel, S.G. Sepanlou, V. Rahimi-Movaghar, T.A. Farid, A.R. Khan, C.S.E.S. Farinha, A. Faro, J.C. Fernandes, F. Fischer, N. Foigt, E.B. Franca, R.C. Franklin, T. Fürst, A. Majeed, K. Gambashidze, K. Kazanjan, M. Kereselidze, I. Khonelidze, M. Shakh-Nazarova, L. Sturua, A. Gamkrelidze, T. Gebre, J.M. Geleijnse, M. Giroud, M.D. Gishu, A.K. Tura, E. Glaser, P. Gona, A. Goodridge, S.V. Gopalani, A. Goto, H.C. Gugnani, R. Gupta, V. Gupta, A.D. Hailu, O.F. Norheim, R.R. Hamadeh, S. Hamidi, A.J. Handal, G.J. Hankey, S. Harikrishnan, H.W. Hoek, M. Horino, N. Horita, H.D. Hosgood, D.G. Hoy, G. Hu, H. Huang, I. Huybrechts, K.M. Iburg, B.T. Idrisov, V.J. Iyer, K.H. Jacobsen, N. Jahanmehr, M.B. Jakovljevic, M. Javanbakht, A.U. Jayatilleke, S.H. Jee, D.K. Lal, S. Zodpey, G. Jiang, Y. Jiang, J.B. Jonas, Z. Kabir, R. Kamal, C.N. Kesavachandran, J. She, H. Kan, A. Karch, D. Karletsos, A. Kaul, N. Kawakami, K. Shibuya, J.F. Kayibanda, D.S. Kazi, P.N. Keiyoro, A.P. Kengne, C.S. Wiysonge, K. Sliwa, A. Keren, Y.S. Khader, E.A. Khan, Y.H. Khang, S. Won, J. Khubchandani, Y.J. Kim, Y. Kokubo, S. Kosen, P.A. Koul, A. Koyanagi, S. Krishnaswami, B. Kuate Defo, B. Kucuk Bicer, H. Lam, Q. Lan, D.O. Laryea, R. Leung, S.E. Lipshultz, J.D. Wilkinson, E.P. Simard, Y. Liu, M.R. Phillips, Q. Xiao, B.K. Lloyd, R. Lunevicius, D. Pope, S. Ma, H. Magdy Abd El Razek, M. Magdy Abd El Razek, W. Marcenes, P.A. Meaney, D.J. Margolis, M.B. Marzan, A.J. Mason-Jones, T.T. Mazorodze, A. Mehari, M.M. Mehndiratta, S.M. Woldeyohannes, B.A. Tedla, Z.A. Memish, W. Mendoza, T.J. Meretoja, F.A. Mhimbira, T.R. Miller, E.J. Mills, N. Mohamed Ibrahim, K.A. Mohammad, A. Mohammadi, G.L.D. Mola, L. Monasta, M. Montico, L. Ronfani, J.D. Monis, A.R. Moore, M. Moradilakeh, L. Morawska, R.E. Norman, R. Mori, A. Werdecker, U.O. Mueller, R. Westerman, S. Murthy, F. Pourmalek, J.B. Nachega, A.J. Paternina Caicedo, S. Seedat, B.X. Tran, A. Naheed, L. Naldi, G. Remuzzi, D. Nand, V. Nangia, D. Nash, S. Neupane, J.N. Newton, F.N. Ngalesoni, P. Nguhiu, Q.L. Nguyen, M. Nomura, L. Nyakarahuka, C.M. Obermeyer, F.A. Ogbo, I. Oh, P.R. Olivares, B.O. Olusanya, J.O. Olusanya, J.N. Opio, E. Oren, E. Ota, A.S. Oyekale, P.A. Mahesh, N. Papantoniou, V. Stathopoulou, E. Park, H. Park, S.B. Patten, V.K. Paul, A. Roy, R. Sagar, M. Satpathy, D.M. Pereira, M. Cortinovis, N. Perico, K. Pesudovs, M. Petzold, J.D. Pillay, S. Polinder, M. Qorbani, A. Rafay, M. Rahman, S.U. Rahman, R.K. Rai, C.L. Ranabhat, T. Rangaswamy, P.V. Rao, S. Resnikoff, D. Rojas-Rueda, G.M. Ruhago, B.F. Sunguya, M.M. Saleh, J.R. Sanabria, M.D. Sanchez-Niño, R. Sarmiento-Suarez, B. Sartorius, M. Sawhney, M.I. Saylan, I.J.C. Schneider, D.A.S. Silva, E.E. Servan-Mori, M.A. Shaikh, R. Sharma, M. Shin, S. Yoon, R. Shiri, K. Shishani, I. Shiue, I.D. Sigfusdottir, D.G.A. Silveira, J.I. Silverberg, Y. Yano, O.P. Singh, P.K. Singh, V. Singh, S. Soneji, J.B. Soriano, L.A. Sposato, C.T. Sreeramareddy, K. Stroumpoulis, S. Swaminathan, B.L. Sykes, R. Tabarés-Seisdedos, K.M. Tabb, R.T. Talongwa, M. Tavakkoli, B. Taye, A.Y. Endries, G. Temam Shifa, A.J. Thomson, R. Tobe-Gai, R. Topor-Madry, J.A. Towbin, Z. Tsala Dimbuene, S. Tyrovolas, K.N. Ukwaja, O.A. Uthman, N. Yonemoto, N. Venketasubramanian, F.S. Violante, S.K. Vladimirov, V.V. Vlassov, S. Weichenthal, M. Wubshet, G. Xu, B. Yakob, P. Yip, N. Yonemoto, M.Z. Younis, C. Yu, Z. Zaidi, M.E. Zaki, H. Zeeb, L.J. Zuhlke

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/Letter to the editorAcademic

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by the global community to provide benchmark targets for global development between 2015 and 2030 and to reframe the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to achieve sustainable global development. This report presents data on maternal mortality in 195 countries from 1990 to 2015. Maternal mortality data were categorized in 3 formats, namely, number of deaths, cause-specific mortality rate per capita, and cause fraction. The overall maternal mortality was modeled using cause-of-death ensemble modeling (CODEm). The number of deaths, maternal mortality ratios (MMRs), and 95% uncertainty intervals were reported for all estimates.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-13
Number of pages3
JournalObstetrical and Gynecological Survey
Volume72
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

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